Alexander Jannaeus was the second king of the Hasmonean dynasty, who ruled over an expanding kingdom of Judea from 103 to 76 BCE.
23 Facts About Alexander Jannaeus
The major historical sources of Alexander Jannaeus's life are Josephus's Antiquities of the Jews and The Jewish War.
The kingdom of Alexander Jannaeus was the largest and strongest known Jewish State outside of biblical sources, having conquered most of Palestine's Mediterranean coastline and regions surrounding the Jordan River.
Alexander Jannaeus had many of his subjects killed for their disapproval of his handling of state affairs.
Alexander Jannaeus was the third son of John Hyrcanus by his second wife.
Ptolemy and Alexander Jannaeus engaged in battle at Asophon near the Jordan River.
Some of his retreating forces tried to push back, but quickly dispersed as Ptolemy's forces pursued Alexander Jannaeus's fleeing army; thirty to fifty thousand Hasmonean soldiers died.
Alexander Jannaeus then continued to conquer much of the Hasmonean kingdom, occupying the entirety of northern Judea, the coast, and territories east of the Jordan River.
Confident, after her death, Alexander Jannaeus found himself free to continue with new campaigns.
Alexander Jannaeus captured Gadara and fought to capture the strong fortress of Amathus in the Transjordan region, but was defeated.
Alexander Jannaeus was more successful in his expedition against the coastal cities, capturing Raphia and Anthedon.
Alexander Jannaeus initially returned his focus back to the Transjordan region where, avenging his previous defeat, he destroyed Amathus.
When morning exposed the delusive tactic, Alexander Jannaeus continued his assault but lost a thousand additional soldiers.
Lysimachus finally convinced the people to surrender, and Alexander Jannaeus peacefully entered the city.
The town council and five hundred civilians took refuge at the Temple of Apollo, where Alexander Jannaeus had them massacred.
Alexander Jannaeus soon captured Gadara, which together with the loss of Gaza caused the Nabataeans to lose their main trade routes leading to Rome and Damascus.
Alexander Jannaeus had wooden barriers built around the altar and the temple preventing people from going near him.
Alexander Jannaeus had gathered six thousand two hundred mercenaries and twenty thousand Jews for battle as Demetrius had forty thousand soldiers and three thousand horses.
Alexander Jannaeus had brought the surviving rebels back to Jerusalem where he had eight hundred Jews, primarily Pharisees, crucified.
Alexander Jannaeus later returned the land he had seized in Moab and Galaaditis from the Nabataeans in order to have them end their support for the Jewish rebels.
From 83 - 80 BCE, Alexander Jannaeus continued campaigning in the east.
Alexander Jannaeus had Pella destroyed because its inhabitants refused to Judaize.
Alexander Jannaeus is believed to have expanded and fortified the Hasmonean palace near Jericho.