Alexander Kolchak's government was based in Omsk, in southwestern Siberia.
53 Facts About Alexander Kolchak
For nearly two years, Kolchak served as Russia's internationally recognized head of state.
However, his efforts to unite the White Movement failed; Alexander Kolchak refused to consider autonomy for ethnic minorities and refused to cooperate with non-Bolshevik leftists, looking for foreign support instead.
Alexander Kolchak was born in Saint Petersburg in 1874 to a family of Romanian origins.
Alexander Kolchak's father was a retired major-general of the marine artillery and a veteran of the 1854 siege of Sevastopol, who after retirement worked as an engineer in ordnance works near St Petersburg.
Alexander Kolchak was educated for a naval career, graduating from the Naval Cadet Corps in 1894 and joining the 7th Naval Battalion.
Alexander Kolchak was transferred to the Russian Far East, serving in Vladivostok from 1895 to 1899.
Alexander Kolchak then returned to western Russia and was based at Kronstadt, joining the Russian Polar expedition of Eduard Toll on the ship Zarya in 1900 as a hydrologist.
Alexander Kolchak took part in two Arctic expeditions to look for the lost explorers and for a while was nicknamed "Alexander Kolchak-Poliarnyi".
In December 1903, Alexander Kolchak was en route to St Petersburg to marry his fiancee, Sophia Omirova, when, not far from Irkutsk, he received notice of the start of war with the Empire of Japan and hastily summoned his bride and her father to Siberia by telegram for a wedding, before heading directly to Port Arthur.
Alexander Kolchak made several night sorties to lay naval mines, one of which succeeded in sinking the Japanese cruiser Takasago.
Alexander Kolchak was decorated with the Order of St Anna 4th class for the exploit.
Alexander Kolchak was wounded in the final battle for Port Arthur and taken as a prisoner of war to Nagasaki, where he spent four months.
Alexander Kolchak was awarded the Golden Sword of St George with the inscription "For Bravery" on his return to Russia.
Alexander Kolchak served on the Naval General Staff from 1906, helping draft a shipbuilding program, a training program, and developing a new protection plan for St Petersburg and the Gulf of Finland.
Alexander Kolchak took part in designing special icebreakers Taimyr and Vaigach, launched in 1909 and spring of 1910.
Alexander Kolchak commanded the Vaigach during this expedition and later worked at the Academy of Sciences with the materials collected by him during expeditions.
The onset of the First World War found him on the flagship Pogranichnik, where Alexander Kolchak oversaw laying of extensive coastal defensive minefields and commanded the naval forces in the Gulf of Riga.
Alexander Kolchak, feeling that the man responsible for planning operations should take part in their execution, was always on board those ships which carried out the operations and at times took direct command of the destroyer flotillas.
Alexander Kolchak was promoted to vice-admiral in August 1916, the youngest man at that rank, and was made commander of the Black Sea Fleet, replacing Admiral Eberhardt.
Alexander Kolchak was tasked with countering the U-boat threat and planning the invasion of the Bosphorus.
One notable disaster took place under Alexander Kolchak's watch: the dreadnought Imperatritsa Mariya exploded in port at Sevastopol on 7 October 1916.
On his arrival at Petrograd, Alexander Kolchak was invited to a meeting of the Provisional Government.
Alexander Kolchak stated that the only way to save the country was to re-establish strict discipline and restore capital punishment in the army and navy.
Some organisations asked Alexander Kolchak to accept the leadership.
The journey to America proved unnecessary, as by the time Alexander Kolchak arrived, the US had given up the idea of any independent action in the Dardanelles.
Alexander Kolchak visited the American Fleet and its ports and decided to return to Russia via Japan.
Alexander Kolchak was instructed to join the British military mission in Baghdad, but when he reached Singapore, was ordered to turn back and go via Shanghai and Beijing to Harbin, to take command of Russian troops guarding the Russian-owned Chinese Eastern Railway in Manchuria, which the British government had decided could be a base for overthrowing the Bolshevik government and getting Russia back into the war with Germany.
Knox wrote that Alexander Kolchak had "more grit, pluck and honest patriotism than any Russian in Siberia".
Alexander Kolchak is a big, sick child, a pure idealist, a convinced slave of duty and service to an idea and to Russia.
Alexander Kolchak is utterly absorbed by the idea of serving Russia, of saving her from Red oppression, and restoring her to full power and to the inviolability of her territory.
Alexander Kolchak has no personal interests, no amour propre: in this respect he is crystal pure.
Alexander Kolchak passionately despises all lawlessness and arbitrariness, but because he is so uncontrolled and impulsive, he himself often unintentionally transgresses against the law, and this mainly when seeking to uphold the same law, and always under the influence of some outsider.
Alexander Kolchak has no plans, no system, no will: in this respect he is soft wax from which advisers and intimates can fashion whatever they want, exploiting the fact that it is enough to disguise something as necessary for the welfare of Russia and the good of the cause to be certain of his approval.
Alexander Kolchak is kind and at the same time severe, responsive and at the same time embarrassed to show human feelings, concealing his gentleness behind make-believe severity.
Alexander Kolchak is impatient and stubborn, loses his temper, threatens and then calms down, making concessions, spreads his hands in a gesture of helplessness.
Alexander Kolchak is bursting to be with the people, with the troops, but when he faces them, has no idea of what to say.
The remaining cabinet members met and voted for Alexander Kolchak to become the head of government with emergency powers.
Alexander Kolchak was named Supreme Ruler, and he promoted himself to full admiral.
The Left SR leaders in Russia denounced Alexander Kolchak and called for his assassination.
Alexander Kolchak pursued a policy of persecuting revolutionaries as well as Socialists of several factions.
Alexander Kolchak acknowledged all of Russia's debts, returned nationalized factories and plants to their owners, granted concessions to foreign investors, dispersed trade unions, persecuted Marxists, and disbanded the soviets.
The American president Woodrow Wilson was strongly hostile towards Alexander Kolchak, openly doubted his word, and was against diplomatic recognition.
Alexander Kolchak had aroused dislike of potential allies, including the Czechoslovak Legion and the Polish 5th Rifle Division.
Alexander Kolchak came under threat from other quarters: local opponents began to agitate and international support began to wane, with even the British turning more towards Denikin.
Alexander Kolchak had left Omsk on the 13th for Irkutsk along the Trans-Siberian Railroad.
Alexander Kolchak was then promised safe passage by the Czechoslovaks to the British military mission in Irkutsk.
Admiral Alexander Kolchak's government was not successful from the time of his taking the position of "Supreme Ruler" until his death.
Alexander Kolchak failed to convince potentially friendly Finland to join with him against the Bolsheviks.
Alexander Kolchak was unable to win diplomatic recognition from any nation in the world, even the United Kingdom.
Monuments dedicated to Alexander Kolchak were built in Saint Petersburg in 2002 and in Irkutsk in 2004, despite objections from some former communist and left-wing politicians, as well as former Soviet army veterans.
Alexander Kolchak's memorial in St Petersburg is a frequent target of vandalism.
Alexander Kolchak was a prominent expert on naval mines and a member of the Russian Geographical Society.