59 Facts About Antonio Luna


Antonio Luna sought to apply his background in military science to the fledgling army.


Nevertheless, Antonio Luna's efforts were not without recognition during his time, for he was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal in 1899.


Besides his military studies, Antonio Luna studied pharmacology, literature, and chemistry.


Antonio Narciso Luna de San Pedro y Novicio Ancheta was born on October 29,1866, at their house along Calle Urbiztondo in Binondo, Manila.


Antonio Luna was the youngest of seven children of Joaquin Luna de San Pedro y Posadas from Badoc and Spanish mestiza Laureana Novicio y Ancheta from Namacpacan, La Union.


Antonio Luna's father was a traveling salesman of the government tobacco monopoly.


Antonio Luna's older brother, Juan, was an accomplished painter who studied in the Madrid Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando.


Antonio Luna's Spoliarium garnered one of the three gold medals awarded in the Madrid Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884.


At the age of 6, Antonio Luna learned reading, writing, and arithmetic from a teacher known as Maestro Intong.


Antonio Luna memorized the Doctrina Christiana, believed to be the first book printed in the Philippines.


Antonio Luna went on to study literature and chemistry at the University of Santo Tomas, where he won first prize for a paper in chemistry titled Two Fundamental Bodies of Chemistry.


Antonio Luna was active as a researcher in the scientific community.


Antonio Luna then went to Belgium and France and worked as an assistant to Dr Latteaux at the Pasteur Institute and to Dr Laffen.


Antonio Luna wrote a piece titled Impressions which dealt with Spanish customs and idiosyncrasies under the pen-name "Taga-ilog".


Also, like many of the Filipino liberals in Spain, Antonio Luna joined the Masonry where he rose to be Master Mason.


Nevertheless, after the existence of the Katipunan was leaked in August 1896, the Antonio Luna brothers were arrested and jailed in Fort Santiago for "participating" in the revolution.


Antonio Luna's statement concerning the revolution was one of the many statements used to abet the laying down of the death sentence for Jose Rizal.


Months later, Jose and Juan were freed but Antonio Luna was exiled to Spain in 1897, where he was imprisoned in Madrid's Carcel Modelo.


Antonio Luna's case was dismissed by the Military Supreme Court and he was released.


Antonio Luna read extensively about the discipline when he was at the Ateneo de Madrid.


Antonio Luna courted Nellie Boustead, a woman who was courted by Jose Rizal, between 1889 and 1891.


At a party held by Filipinos, a drunk Antonio Luna made unsavory remarks against Boustead.


However, Antonio Luna apologized to Rizal, thus averting a duel between the compatriots.


Antonio Luna thought the Filipinos should enter Intramuros to have joint occupation of the walled city.


Meanwhile, Antonio Luna felt that bureaucratic placebos were being thrown his way when all he wanted was to organize and discipline the enthusiastic but ill-fed and ill-trained troops into a real army.


Antonio Luna appointed Colonel Manuel Bernal Sityar, a mestizo who was formerly a lieutenant serving the Civil Guard, as superintendent.


Antonio Luna recruited other mestizos and Spaniards who had fought in the Spanish army during the 1896 Revolution for training.


Antonio Luna devised two courses of instruction, planned the reorganization, with a battalion of tiradores and a cavalry squadron, set up an inventory of guns and ammunition, arsenals, using convents and town halls, quartermasters, lookouts and communication systems.


Antonio Luna built trenches with the help of his chief engineer, General Jose Alejandrino, and had his brother Juan design the school's uniforms.


Antonio Luna insisted on strict discipline over and above clan armies and regional loyalties, which prevented coordination between various military units.


Antonio Luna proposed a strategy that was designed to trap the Americans in Manila before more of their troops could land by executing surprise attacks while building up strength in the north.


Antonio Luna, after receiving orders from Aguinaldo, rushed to the front lines from his headquarters at Polo and led three companies to La Loma to engage General Arthur MacArthur's forces.


Antonio Luna personally had to carry wounded officers and men to safety; of these, the most dramatic rescue was that of Commander Jose Torres Bugallon.


The Antonio Luna Sharpshooters was a short-lived unit formed by Antonio Luna to serve under the Philippine Revolutionary Army.


Antonio Luna, still thinking of the defeat at the Battle of Caloocan, sent the men away at first.


Garcia, one of Antonio Luna's favorites, was a modest but brave soldier.


Antonio Luna's unit was tasked to approach the enemy by surprise and quickly return to camp.


Antonio Luna had admired Garcia's unit very much that he wanted to increase their size.


Antonio Luna believed that a larger force might undermine the efficiency of their work.


Troops directly under Antonio Luna's command were divided into three: the West Brigade under General Pantaleon Garcia, the Center Brigade under General Mariano Llanera, and the East Brigade under General Licerio Geronimo.


Antonio Luna even requested the battle-hardened Tinio Brigade from Northern Luzon, under the command of General Manuel Tinio.


Secondly, Antonio Luna failed to relieve the Kapampangan militia, already past their prime, when the battalion from Kawit, Cavite, refused to replace the former, saying that they had orders to obey only instructions directly from Aguinaldo.


Antonio Luna proved to be a strict disciplinarian and his temper alienated many in the ranks of the common soldiers.


An example of this occurred during the Battle of Calumpit, wherein Antonio Luna ordered General Tomas Mascardo to send troops from Guagua to strengthen the former's defenses.


However, Mascardo ignored orders by Antonio Luna insisting that he was going to Arayat to undertake an "inspection of troops".


Antonio Luna, infuriated by Mascardo's actions, had decided to detain him.


However, Major Hernando, one of Antonio Luna's aides, tried to placate the general's anger by convincing Antonio Luna to push the case to President Aguinaldo.


Antonio Luna was saved, though, by the actions of a Filipino colonel named Alejandro Avecilla who, having seen Luna fall, rode towards the general to save him.


Meanwhile, in recognition of his work, Antonio Luna was awarded the Philippine Republic Medal.


Antonio Luna shrugged off all these threats, reiterating his trust for Aguinaldo, and continued building defenses at Pangasinan where the Americans were planning a landing.


Antonio Luna set off from Bayambang, first by train, then on horseback, and eventually in three carriages to Nueva Ecija with 25 of his men.


Antonio Luna was told that Aguinaldo had left for San Isidro in Nueva Ecija.


Enraged, Antonio Luna asked why he had not been told that the meeting was canceled.


Still outraged and furious, Antonio Luna rushed down the stairs and met Janolino, accompanied by some elements of the Kawit Battalion.


Janolino swung his bolo at Antonio Luna, wounding him in the head.


Antonio Luna staggered out into the plaza where Roman and Rusca were rushing to his aid, but as he lay dying, they too were set upon and shot, with Roman being killed and Rusca being severely wounded.


The Americans even thought Antonio Luna had taken over to replace Aguinaldo.


The death of Antonio Luna, acknowledged to be the most brilliant and capable of the Filipino generals at the time, was a decisive factor in the fight against the American forces.


Also, soldiers connected with Antonio Luna were demoralized and as a result eventually surrendered to the Americans.