11 Facts About Artificial pacemaker


An artificial cardiac pacemaker or pacemaker is a medical device that generates electrical impulses delivered by electrodes to the chambers of the heart either the upper atria, or lower ventricles to cause the targeted chambers to contract and pump blood.

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Primary purpose of a Artificial pacemaker is to maintain an adequate heart rate, either because the heart's natural Artificial pacemaker is not fast enough, or because there is a block in the heart's electrical conduction system.

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Specific type of Artificial pacemaker called an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator combines Artificial pacemaker and defibrillator functions in a single implantable device.

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Permanent pacing with an implantable Artificial pacemaker involves transvenous placement of one or more pacing electrodes within a chamber, or chambers, of the heart, while the Artificial pacemaker is implanted inside the skin under the clavicle.

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An "atrial triggered Artificial pacemaker" is the mode in which an impulse is produced immediately after an electrical event in the atrium.

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Major step forward in Artificial pacemaker function has been to attempt to mimic nature by utilizing various inputs to produce a rate-responsive Artificial pacemaker using parameters such as the QT interval, pO2 – pCO2 in the arterial-venous system, physical activity as determined by an accelerometer, body temperature, ATP levels, adrenaline, etc.

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The first dynamic Artificial pacemaker was invented by Anthony Rickards of the National Heart Hospital, London, UK, in 1982.

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Once the Artificial pacemaker is implanted, it is periodically checked to ensure the device is operational and performing appropriately.

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In 1950, Canadian electrical engineer John Hopps designed and built the first external Artificial pacemaker based upon observations by cardio-thoracic surgeons Wilfred Gordon Bigelow and John Callaghan at Toronto General Hospital, although the device was first tested on a dog at the University of Toronto's Banting Institute.

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One of the earliest patients to receive this Lucas Artificial pacemaker device was a woman in her early 30s.

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Artificial pacemaker died in 2001, at the age of 86, outliving the inventor as well as the surgeon.

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