Avicenna was a Muslim Peripatetic philosopher influenced by Greek Aristotelian philosophy.
|FactSnippet No. 559,570|
Avicenna was a Muslim Peripatetic philosopher influenced by Greek Aristotelian philosophy.
|FactSnippet No. 559,570|
Besides philosophy and medicine, Avicenna's corpus includes writings on astronomy, alchemy, geography and geology, psychology, Islamic theology, logic, mathematics, physics, and works of poetry.
|FactSnippet No. 559,571|
However, Avicenna was not the son but the great-great-grandson of a man named Sina.
|FactSnippet No. 559,572|
Various texts show that Avicenna debated philosophical points with the greatest scholars of the time.
|FactSnippet No. 559,574|
Avicenna was born in c in the village of Afshana in Transoxiana to a family of Persian stock.
|FactSnippet No. 559,575|
Avicenna was instead an adherent of the Sunni Hanafi school, which was followed by the Samanids.
|FactSnippet No. 559,577|
Avicenna was later sent by his father to an Indian greengrocer, who taught him arithmetic.
|FactSnippet No. 559,579|
Some time later, Avicenna's father invited the physician and philosopher Abu Abdallah al-Natili to their house to educate Avicenna.
|FactSnippet No. 559,580|
Avicenna later moved to Gurganj, the capital of Khwarazm, which he reports that he did due to "necessity".
|FactSnippet No. 559,581|
Avicenna later moved due to "necessity" once more, this time to the west.
|FactSnippet No. 559,582|
Avicenna was planning to visit the ruler of the city of Gurgan, the Ziyarid Qabus, a cultivated patron of writing, whose court attracted many distinguished poets and scholars.
|FactSnippet No. 559,583|
However, when Avicenna eventually arrived, he discovered that the ruler had been dead since the winter of 1013.
|FactSnippet No. 559,584|
Avicenna then left Gurgan for Dihistan, but returned after becoming ill.
|FactSnippet No. 559,585|
Avicenna stayed briefly in Gurgan, reportedly serving Qabus' son and successor Manuchihr and resided in the house of a patron.
|FactSnippet No. 559,586|
In c, Avicenna went to the city of Ray, where he entered into the service of the Buyid amir Majd al-Dawla () and his mother Sayyida Shirin, the de facto ruler of the realm.
|FactSnippet No. 559,587|
In 1015, during Avicenna's stay in Hamadan, he participated in a public debate, as was custom for newly arrived scholars in western Iran at that time.
|FactSnippet No. 559,588|
The person whom Avicenna debated against was Abu'l-Qasim al-Kirmani, a member of the school of philosophers of Baghdad.
|FactSnippet No. 559,589|
The debate became heated, resulting in Avicenna accusing Abu'l-Qasim of lack of basic knowledge in logic, while Abu'l-Qasim accused Avicenna of impoliteness.
|FactSnippet No. 559,590|
Abu'l-Qasim later retaliated by writing a letter to an unknown person, in which he made accusations so serious, that Avicenna wrote to a deputy of Majd al-Dawla, named Abu Sa'd, to investigate the matter.
|FactSnippet No. 559,591|
Not long afterwards, Avicenna shifted his allegiance to the rising Buyid amir Shams al-Dawla, which Adamson suggests was due to Abu'l-Qasim working under Sayyida Shirin.
|FactSnippet No. 559,592|
Avicenna had been called upon by Shams al-Dawla to treat him, but after the latters campaign in the same year against his former ally, the Annazid ruler Abu Shawk, he forced Avicenna to become his vizier.
|FactSnippet No. 559,593|
Avicenna was asked by Shams al-Dawla's son and successor Sama' al-Dawla to stay as vizier, but instead went into hiding with his patron Abu Ghalib al-Attar, to wait for better opportunities to emerge.
|FactSnippet No. 559,594|
Avicenna was imprisoned for four months, until Ala al-Dawla captured Hamadan, thus putting an end to Sama al-Dawla's reign.
|FactSnippet No. 559,595|
Avicenna was released, and went to Isfahan, where he was well received by Ala al-Dawla.
|FactSnippet No. 559,596|
Avicenna dedicated two Persian works to him, a philosophical treatise named Danish-nama-yi Ala'i, and a medical treatise about the pulse.
|FactSnippet No. 559,597|
In 1037, while Avicenna was accompanying Ala al-Dawla to a battle near Isfahan, he was hit by a severe colic, which he had been constantly suffering from throughout his life.
|FactSnippet No. 559,598|
Avicenna died shortly afterwards in Hamadan, where he was buried.
|FactSnippet No. 559,599|
Avicenna argued that the fact of existence cannot be inferred from or accounted for by the essence of existing things, and that form and matter by themselves cannot interact and originate the movement of the universe or the progressive actualization of existing things.
|FactSnippet No. 559,601|
Avicenna argued that the impossible being is that which cannot exist, while the contingent in itself has the potentiality to be or not to be without entailing a contradiction.
|FactSnippet No. 559,602|
Avicenna adds that the 'Necessary-Existent-due-to-Itself' has no genus, nor a definition (hadd), nor a counterpart (nadd), nor an opposite (did), and is detached (bari) from matter (madda), quality (kayf), quantity (kam), place (ayn), situation (wad) and time (waqt).
|FactSnippet No. 559,603|
Avicenna made an argument for the existence of God which would be known as the "Proof of the Truthful".
|FactSnippet No. 559,604|
Avicenna was a devout Muslim and sought to reconcile rational philosophy with Islamic theology.
|FactSnippet No. 559,606|
Avicenna's aim was to prove the existence of God and Avicenna's creation of the world scientifically and through reason and logic.
|FactSnippet No. 559,607|
Avicenna wrote a number of short treatises dealing with Islamic theology.
|FactSnippet No. 559,608|
Avicenna did not state this more clearly because of the political implications of such a theory, if prophecy could be questioned, and because most of the time he was writing shorter works which concentrated on explaining his theories on philosophy and theology clearly, without digressing to consider epistemological matters which could only be properly considered by other philosophers.
|FactSnippet No. 559,609|
Avicenna argued that the Islamic prophets should be considered higher than philosophers.
|FactSnippet No. 559,611|
Avicenna is generally understood to have been aligned with the Sunni Hanafi school of thought.
|FactSnippet No. 559,612|
Avicenna studied Hanafi law, many of his notable teachers were Hanafi jurists, and he served under the Hanafi court of Ali ibn Mamun.
|FactSnippet No. 559,613|
Avicenna said at an early age that he remained "unconvinced" by Ismaili missionary attempts to convert him.
|FactSnippet No. 559,614|
Avicenna believed his "Floating Man" thought experiment demonstrated that the soul is a substance, and claimed humans cannot doubt their own consciousness, even in a situation that prevents all sensory data input.
|FactSnippet No. 559,615|
Avicenna argued that, in this scenario, one would still have self-consciousness.
|FactSnippet No. 559,616|
Avicenna referred to the living human intelligence, particularly the active intellect, which he believed to be the hypostasis by which God communicates truth to the human mind and imparts order and intelligibility to nature.
|FactSnippet No. 559,617|
However, Avicenna posited the brain as the place where reason interacts with sensation.
|FactSnippet No. 559,618|
Avicenna thus concluded that the idea of the self is not logically dependent on any physical thing, and that the soul should not be seen in relative terms, but as a primary given, a substance.
|FactSnippet No. 559,619|
Avicenna authored a five-volume medical encyclopedia: The Canon of Medicine.
|FactSnippet No. 559,620|
Avicenna considered whether events like rare diseases or disorders have natural causes.
|FactSnippet No. 559,621|
Avicenna used the example of polydactyly to explain his perception that causal reasons exist for all medical events.
|FactSnippet No. 559,622|
Avicenna wrote on Earth sciences such as geology in The Book of Healing.
|FactSnippet No. 559,623|
Avicenna discussed Aristotle's Posterior Analytics and significantly diverged from it on several points.
|FactSnippet No. 559,624|
Avicenna then added two further methods for arriving at the first principles: the ancient Aristotelian method of induction, and the method of examination and experimentation (tajriba).
|FactSnippet No. 559,625|
Avicenna criticized Aristotelian induction, arguing that "it does not lead to the absolute, universal, and certain premises that it purports to provide.
|FactSnippet No. 559,626|
Avicenna's work was further developed by Najm al-Din al-Qazwini al-Katibi and became the dominant system of Islamic logic until modern times.
|FactSnippet No. 559,627|
Avicenna endorsed the law of non-contradiction proposed by Aristotle, that a fact could not be both true and false at the same time and in the same sense of the terminology used.
|FactSnippet No. 559,628|
Avicenna stated, "Anyone who denies the law of non-contradiction should be beaten and burned until he admits that to be beaten is not the same as not to be beaten, and to be burned is not the same as not to be burned.
|FactSnippet No. 559,629|
Avicenna viewed inclination as a permanent force whose effect is dissipated by external forces such as air resistance.
|FactSnippet No. 559,630|
Theory of motion presented by Avicenna was probably influenced by the 6th-century Alexandrian scholar John Philoponus.
|FactSnippet No. 559,631|
Avicenna's is a less sophisticated variant of the theory of impetus developed by Buridan in the 14th century.
|FactSnippet No. 559,632|
In optics, Avicenna was among those who argued that light had a speed, observing that "if the perception of light is due to the emission of some sort of particles by a luminous source, the speed of light must be finite.
|FactSnippet No. 559,633|
Avicenna says in his book of heaven and earth, that heat is generated from motion in external things.
|FactSnippet No. 559,634|
Avicenna's psychology requires that connection between the body and soul be strong enough to ensure the soul's individuation, but weak enough to allow for its immortality.
|FactSnippet No. 559,636|
Avicenna wrote an attack on astrology titled Resala fi ebtal ahkam al-nojum, in which he cited passages from the Quran to dispute the power of astrology to foretell the future.
|FactSnippet No. 559,637|
Avicenna believed that each planet had some influence on the earth, but argued against astrologers being able to determine the exact effects.
|FactSnippet No. 559,638|
Avicenna criticized Aristotle's view of the stars receiving their light from the Sun, stating that the stars are self-luminous, and believed that the planets are self-luminous.
|FactSnippet No. 559,639|
For example, Avicenna considers the motion of the solar apogee, which Ptolemy had taken to be fixed.
|FactSnippet No. 559,642|
Unlike al-Razi, Avicenna explicitly disputed the theory of the transmutation of substances commonly believed by alchemists:.
|FactSnippet No. 559,643|
The third work is agreed to be Avicenna's writing, adapted from the Kitab al-Shifa (Book of the Remedy).
|FactSnippet No. 559,644|
Avicenna classified minerals into stones, fusible substances, sulfurs and salts, building on the ideas of Aristotle and Jabir.
|FactSnippet No. 559,645|
The epistola de Re recta is somewhat less sceptical of alchemy; Anawati argues that it is by Avicenna, but written earlier in his career when he had not yet firmly decided that transmutation was impossible.
|FactSnippet No. 559,646|
Avicenna has been recognized by both East and West as one of the great figures in intellectual history.
|FactSnippet No. 559,647|
Avicenna was one of the Islamic world's leading writers in the field of medicine.
|FactSnippet No. 559,648|
Aristotle's dominant intellectual influence among medieval European scholars meant that Avicenna's linking of Galen's medical writings with Aristotle's philosophical writings in the Canon of Medicine significantly increased Avicenna's importance in medieval Europe in comparison to other Islamic writers on medicine.
|FactSnippet No. 559,650|
Avicenna Prize, established in 2003, is awarded every two years by UNESCO and rewards individuals and groups for their achievements in the field of ethics in science.
|FactSnippet No. 559,652|
Avicenna has had a lasting influence on the development of medicine and health sciences.
|FactSnippet No. 559,653|
Treatises of Avicenna influenced later Muslim thinkers in many areas including theology, philology, mathematics, astronomy, physics and music.
|FactSnippet No. 559,654|
Avicenna's works numbered almost 450 volumes on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived.
|FactSnippet No. 559,655|
Avicenna wrote at least one treatise on alchemy, but several others have been falsely attributed to him.
|FactSnippet No. 559,656|
Avicenna created new scientific vocabulary that had not previously existed in Persian.
|FactSnippet No. 559,657|
Persian poetry from Avicenna is recorded in various manuscripts and later anthologies such as Nozhat al-Majales.
|FactSnippet No. 559,658|