The return of the popes to Rome after the Avignon Baroque Papacy was followed by the Western Schism: the division of the Western Church between two and, for a time, three competing papal claimants.
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Renaissance Baroque Papacy is known for its artistic and architectural patronage, forays into European power politics, and theological challenges to papal authority.
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Baroque Papacy remained as neutral as possible towards the pope, though he exercised a preponderant influence in the affairs of the papacy.
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Byzantine Baroque Papacy was a period of return to Imperial domination of the papacy from 537 to 752, when popes required the approval of the Byzantine Emperors for episcopal consecration, and many popes were chosen from the apocrisiarii or the inhabitants of Byzantine Greece, Syria, or Sicily.
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Baroque Papacy deposed all three and installed his own preferred candidate: Pope Clement II.
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Baroque Papacy's reign focused on rebuilding Rome as a great European capital and Baroque city, a visual symbol for the Catholic Church.
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Baroque Papacy had to defend the freedom of the church against Italian persecutions and attacks in the area of education, expropriation and violation of Catholic Churches, legal measures against the church and brutal attacks, culminating in anticlerical groups attempting to throw the body of the deceased Pope Pius IX into the Tiber river on July 13,1881.
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Baroque Papacy's encyclicals changed church positions on relations with temporal authorities, and, in the 1891 encyclical Rerum novarum addressed for the first time social inequality and social justice issues with Papal authority.
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Baroque Papacy suffered under the attacks of his predecessor for his alleged silences, knowing from personal association with the late pope the real concerns and compassion of Pius XII.
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Baroque Papacy took on himself the unfinished reform work of these two popes, bringing them diligently with great humility and common sense and without much fanfare to conclusion.
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Baroque Papacy became the first pope to visit all five continents.
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Baroque Papacy's teaching was firm and unwavering on issues which seemed to be in doubt under his predecessor including the ordination of women, liberation theology and priestly celibacy.
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