30 Facts About Cattle


Cattle are commonly raised as livestock for meat, for milk, and for hides, which are used to make leather.

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Cattle were originally identified as three separate species: Bos taurus, the European or "taurine" cattle ; Bos indicus, the Indicine or "zebu"; and the extinct Bos primigenius, the aurochs.

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Cattle originally meant movable personal property, especially livestock of any kind, as opposed to real property .

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Cattle are ruminants, meaning their digestive system is highly specialized to allow the consumption of difficult to digest plants as food.

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Cattle have one stomach with four compartments, the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum, with the rumen being the largest compartment.

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Cattle are known for regurgitating and re-chewing their food, known as cud chewing, like most ruminants.

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Cattle tested in a radial arm maze are able to remember the locations of high-quality food for at least 30 days.

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Cattle can make an association between a visual stimulus and food within 1 day—memory of this association can be retained for 1 year, despite a slight decay.

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Cattle can tell the difference between familiar and unfamiliar animals of the same species .

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Cattle temperament is defined as "the consistent behavioral and physiological difference observed between individuals in response to a stressor or environmental challenge and is used to describe the relatively stable difference in the behavioral predisposition of an animal, which can be related to psychobiological mechanisms".

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Cattle are very gregarious and even short-term isolation is considered to cause severe psychological stress.

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Cattle are a prey animal and to assist predator detection, their eyes are located on the sides of their head rather than the front.

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Cattle have good visual acuity, but compared to humans, their visual accommodation is poor.

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Cattle have two kinds of color receptors in the cone cells of their retinas.

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Cattle can distinguish long wavelength colors much better than the shorter wavelengths .

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Cattle have a well-developed sense of taste and can distinguish the four primary tastes .

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Cattle have a range of odiferous glands over their body including interdigital, infraorbital, inguinal and sebaceous glands, indicating that olfaction probably plays a large role in their social life.

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Cattle have tactile sensations detected mainly by mechanoreceptors, thermoreceptors and nociceptors in the skin and muscles.

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Cattle are considered to be "hider" type animals, utilizing secluded areas more in the hours before calving and continued to use it more for the hour after calving.

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Cattle often engage in mock fights where they test each other's strength in a non-aggressive way.

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Cattle adjust other aspects of their grazing behavior in relation to the available food; foraging velocity decreases and intake rate increases in areas of abundant palatable forage.

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Cattle avoid grazing areas contaminated by the faeces of other cattle more strongly than they avoid areas contaminated by sheep, but they do not avoid pasture contaminated by rabbit faeces.

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Cattle are often raised by allowing herds to graze on the grasses of large tracts of rangeland.

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Cattle do have a stay apparatus, but do not sleep standing up; they lie down to sleep deeply.

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Cattle produce milk, and dairy cattle are specifically bred to produce the large quantities of milk processed and sold for human consumption.

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Cattle today are the basis of a multibillion-dollar industry worldwide.

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Cattle hides, used for leather to make shoes, couches and clothing, are another widespread product.

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Cattle remain broadly used as draft animals in many developing countries, such as India.

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Cattle are used in some sporting games, including rodeo and bullfighting.

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Cattle diseases were in the center of attention in the 1980s and 1990s when the Bovine spongiform encephalopathy, known as mad cow disease, was of concern.

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