22 Facts About Har Gobind Khorana

1. Har Gobind Khorana investigated mutations in rhodopsin that are associated with retinitis pigmentosa, which causes night blindness.

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2. Har Gobind Khorana determined that some of the codons prompt the cell to start or stop the manufacture of proteins.

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3. Har Gobind Khorana added details about which serial combinations of nucleotides form which specific amino acids.

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4. In 1960 Har Gobind Khorana moved to the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin.

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5. Har Gobind Khorana is best known for his work cracking the genetic code.

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6. Har Gobind Khorana made important contributions to this field by building different RNA chains with the help of enzymes.

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7. Har Gobind Khorana wrote a biographical article, "A Life in Science", in Science.

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8. Har Gobind Khorana performed the research on the genetic code for which he won the Nobel Prize at Wisconsin in the 1960s.

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9. In 1960 Har Gobind Khorana moved to the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, where he became Professor of Biochemistry and co-director of the Institute.

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10. Har Gobind Khorana was the youngest of five children born to Hindu parents in Raipur, a village of about 100 people in Punjab, India, which is part of West Pakistan.

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11. In 1968 Har Gobind Khorana shared the Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology with Robert W Holley and Marshall W Nirenberg (1927—) "for their interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis.

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12. Har Gobind Khorana was the first scientist to synthesize strings of nucleotides.

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13. Har Gobind Khorana confirmed Nirenberg's finding that the arrangement of the four types of nucleotides on the DNA molecule determines the chemical composition and function of new cells; he then built on this finding and determined the nucleotide combinations that form specific amino acids.

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14. Har Gobind Khorana was born in Raipur on January 9, 1922.

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15. Har Gobind Khorana was an Indian organic chemist and cowinner of the 1968 Nobel Prize for physiology or medicine.

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16. In 1966, Har Gobind Khorana was elected to the National Academy of Sciences.

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17. Har Gobind Khorana devised the methods that led to the synthesis of large, well-defined nucleic acids.

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18. In 1955, Har Gobind Khorana learned about Severo Ochoa's discovery of the enzyme polynucleotide phosphorylase and met Arthur Kornberg, who described pioneering research on the enzymatic synthesis of DNA.

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19. Har Gobind Khorana found that this reagent was very useful in overcoming problems in the synthesis of polynucleotides.

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20. Har Gobind Khorana died on 9 November 2011, in Concord, Massachusetts, at the age of 89.

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21. In 1960 Har Gobind Khorana accepted a position as co-director of the Institute for Enzyme research at the Institute for Enzyme Research at the University of Wisconsin at Madison.

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22. Har Gobind Khorana lived in British India until 1945, when he moved to England to study organic chemistry at the University of Liverpool on a Government of India Fellowship.

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