Immanuel Kant drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposal to think of the objects of experience as conforming to our spatial and temporal forms of intuition and the categories of our understanding, so that we have a priori cognition of those objects.
89 Facts About Immanuel Kant
Immanuel Kant believed that reason is the source of morality, and that aesthetics arises from a faculty of disinterested judgment.
Immanuel Kant hoped that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation.
Immanuel Kant's mother, Anna Regina Reuter, was born in Konigsberg to a father from Nuremberg.
Immanuel Kant's father, Johann Georg Immanuel Kant, was a German harness-maker from Memel, at the time Prussia's most northeastern city.
The Immanuel Kant household stressed the pietist values of religious devotion, humility, and a literal interpretation of the Bible.
The young Immanuel Kant's education was strict, punitive and disciplinary, and focused on Latin and religious instruction over mathematics and science.
Immanuel Kant never married but seems to have had a rewarding social life; he was a popular teacher as well as a modestly successful author, even before starting on his major philosophical works.
Immanuel Kant showed a great aptitude for study at an early age.
Immanuel Kant first attended the Collegium Fridericianum from which he graduated at the end of the summer of 1740.
Immanuel Kant studied the philosophy of Gottfried Leibniz and Christian Wolff under Martin Knutzen, a rationalist who was familiar with developments in British philosophy and science and introduced Kant to the new mathematical physics of Isaac Newton.
Immanuel Kant dissuaded Kant from idealism, the idea that reality is purely mental, which most philosophers in the 18th century regarded in a negative light.
The theory of transcendental idealism that Immanuel Kant later included in the Critique of Pure Reason was developed partially in opposition to traditional idealism.
Immanuel Kant had contacts with students, colleagues, friends and diners who frequented the local Masonic lodge.
Immanuel Kant became a private tutor in the towns surrounding Konigsberg, but continued his scholarly research.
Immanuel Kant is best known for his work in the philosophy of ethics and metaphysics, but he made significant contributions to other disciplines.
In 1755, Immanuel Kant received a license to lecture in the University of Konigsberg and began lecturing on a variety of topics including mathematics, physics, logic, and metaphysics.
In 1756, Immanuel Kant published three papers on the 1755 Lisbon earthquake.
In 1757, Immanuel Kant began lecturing on geography making him one of the first lecturers to explicitly teach geography as its own subject.
Immanuel Kant correctly deduced that the Milky Way was a large disk of stars, which he theorized formed from a much larger spinning gas cloud.
Immanuel Kant further suggested that other distant "nebulae" might be other galaxies.
In 1766 Immanuel Kant wrote a critical piece on Emanuel Swedenborg's Dreams of a Spirit-Seer.
In defense of this appointment, Immanuel Kant wrote his inaugural dissertation De Mundi Sensibilis atque Intelligibilis Forma et Principiis.
Recent Immanuel Kant scholarship has devoted more attention to these "pre-critical" writings and has recognized a degree of continuity with his mature work.
At age 46, Immanuel Kant was an established scholar and an increasingly influential philosopher, and much was expected of him.
In correspondence with his ex-student and friend Markus Herz, Immanuel Kant admitted that, in the inaugural dissertation, he had failed to account for the relation between our sensible and intellectual faculties.
Immanuel Kant credited David Hume with awakening him from a "dogmatic slumber" in which he had unquestioningly accepted the tenets of both religion and natural philosophy.
Immanuel Kant felt that reason could remove this skepticism, and he set himself to solving these problems.
When Immanuel Kant emerged from his silence in 1781, the result was the Critique of Pure Reason.
Immanuel Kant countered Hume's empiricism by claiming that some knowledge exists inherently in the mind, independent of experience.
Immanuel Kant drew a parallel to the Copernican revolution in his proposal that worldly objects can be intuited a priori, and that intuition is consequently distinct from objective reality.
Immanuel Kant acquiesced to Hume somewhat by defining causality as a "regular, constant sequence of events in time, and nothing more".
Immanuel Kant published a second edition of the Critique of Pure Reason in 1787, heavily revising the first parts of the book.
Immanuel Kant continued to develop his moral philosophy, notably in 1788's Critique of Practical Reason, and 1797's Metaphysics of Morals.
Immanuel Kant then arranged to have all four pieces published as a book, routing it through the philosophy department at the University of Jena to avoid the need for theological censorship.
Immanuel Kant then published his response to the King's reprimand and explained himself in the preface of The Conflict of the Faculties.
Immanuel Kant wrote a number of semi-popular essays on history, religion, politics, and other topics.
The progressive stages of revision of Immanuel Kant's teachings marked the emergence of German idealism.
Immanuel Kant opposed these developments and publicly denounced Fichte in an open letter in 1799.
In 1800, a student of Immanuel Kant named Gottlob Benjamin Jasche published a manual of logic for teachers called Logik, which he had prepared at Immanuel Kant's request.
Jasche prepared the Logik using a copy of a textbook in logic by Georg Friedrich Meier entitled Excerpt from the Doctrine of Reason, in which Immanuel Kant had written copious notes and annotations.
Immanuel Kant died at Konigsberg on 12 February 1804, uttering "Es ist gut" before expiring.
Immanuel Kant always cut a curious figure in his lifetime for his modest, rigorously scheduled habits, which have been referred to as clocklike.
Originally, Immanuel Kant was buried inside the cathedral, but in 1880 his remains were moved to a neo-Gothic chapel adjoining the northeast corner of the cathedral.
In brief, Immanuel Kant argues that the mind itself necessarily makes a constitutive contribution to knowledge, that this contribution is transcendental rather than psychological, and that to act autonomously is to act according to rational moral principles.
Yet, although he considers the possibility of such knowledge to be obvious, Immanuel Kant nevertheless assumes the burden of providing a philosophical proof that we have a priori knowledge in mathematics, the natural sciences, and metaphysics.
However, Immanuel Kant speaks of the thing in itself or transcendent object as a product of the understanding as it attempts to conceive of objects in abstraction from the conditions of sensibility.
Immanuel Kant provides two central lines of argumentation in support of his claims about the categories.
Immanuel Kant himself said that it is the one that cost him the most labor.
Against this, Immanuel Kant reasserts his own insistence upon the necessity of a sensible component in all genuine knowledge.
Immanuel Kant proposes to replace the following three with his later doctrines of anthropology, the metaphysical foundations of natural science, and the critical postulation of human freedom and morality.
Immanuel Kant further argues in each case that his doctrine of transcendental idealism is able to resolve the antinomy.
Immanuel Kant developed his ethics, or moral philosophy, in three works: Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals, Critique of Practical Reason, and Metaphysics of Morals.
Immanuel Kant is known for his theory that all moral obligation is grounded in what he calls the "categorical imperative", which is derived from the concept of duty.
Immanuel Kant argues that the moral law is a principle of reason itself, not based on contingent facts about the world, such as what would make us happy; to act on the moral law has no other motive than "worthiness to be happy".
Immanuel Kant calls practical "everything that is possible through freedom"; he calls the pure practical laws that are never given through sensuous conditions, but are held analogously with the universal law of causality, moral laws.
Immanuel Kant's promised Metaphysics of Morals was much delayed and did not appear until its two parts, "The Doctrine of Right" and "The Doctrine of Virtue", were published separately in 1797 and 1798.
In Towards Perpetual Peace: A Philosophical Project, Immanuel Kant listed several conditions that he thought necessary for ending wars and creating a lasting peace.
Immanuel Kant believed that universal history leads to the ultimate world of republican states at peace, but his theory was not pragmatic.
Immanuel Kant opposed "democracy", which at his time meant direct democracy, believing that majority rule posed a threat to individual liberty.
Immanuel Kant articulates his strongest criticisms of the organization and practices of religious organizations to those that encourage what he sees as a religion of counterfeit service to God.
Immanuel Kant sees these as efforts to make oneself pleasing to God in ways other than conscientious adherence to the principle of moral rightness in choosing and acting upon one's maxims.
Immanuel Kant discusses the subjective nature of aesthetic qualities and experiences in Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime.
Baumgarten, who wrote Aesthetica, Immanuel Kant was one of the first philosophers to develop and integrate aesthetic theory into a unified and comprehensive philosophical system, utilizing ideas that played an integral role throughout his philosophy.
Immanuel Kant believed that a judgement of taste shares characteristics engaged in a moral judgement: both are disinterested, and we hold them to be universal.
Immanuel Kant developed a theory of humor that has been interpreted as an "incongruity" theory.
Immanuel Kant illustrated his theory of humor by telling three narrative jokes in the Critique of Judgment.
Immanuel Kant thought that the physiological impact of humor is akin to that of music.
Immanuel Kant developed a distinction between an object of art as a material value subject to the conventions of society and the transcendental condition of the judgment of taste as a "refined" value in his Idea for a Universal History with a Cosmopolitan Aim.
Immanuel Kant lectured on anthropology, the study of human nature, for twenty-three years.
Immanuel Kant was among the first people of his time to introduce anthropology as an intellectual area of study, long before the field gained popularity, and his texts are considered to have advanced the field.
Immanuel Kant was the first to suggest using a dimensionality approach to human diversity.
Immanuel Kant viewed anthropology in two broad categories: the physiological approach, which he referred to as "what nature makes of the human being"; and the pragmatic approach, which explores the things that a human "can and should make of himself".
Immanuel Kant was one of the most notable Enlightenment thinkers to defend racism, although his views were common at the time.
Whereas other contributors to early racial thought like Carolus Linnaeus and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach had offered only "empirical" observation, Immanuel Kant produced a full-blow theory of race.
Immanuel Kant was an anti-Semite, believing that Jews were incapable of transcending material forces, which a moral order required.
Charles W Mills wrote that Kant has been "sanitized for public consumption", his racist works conveniently ignored.
Robert Bernasconi stated that Immanuel Kant "supplied the first scientific definition of race".
Pauline Kleingeld argues that, while Immanuel Kant "did defend a racial hierarchy until at least the end of the 1780s", his views on race changed significantly in works published in the last decade of his life.
In particular, she argues that Immanuel Kant rejected past views related to racial hierarchies and the diminished rights or moral status of non-whites in Perpetual Peace.
Immanuel Kant asserts that all races of humankind are of the same species, challenging the position of Forster and others that the races were distinct species.
Immanuel Kant's ideas have been incorporated into a variety of schools of thought.
Immanuel Kant influenced Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling, Hegel, and Novalis during the 1780s and 1790s.
Samuel Taylor Coleridge was greatly influenced by Immanuel Kant and helped to spread awareness of him, and of German Idealism generally, in the UK and the US.
Immanuel Kant's thinking on religion was used in Britain to challenge the nineteenth-century decline in religious faith.
Criticisms of Immanuel Kant were common in the realist views of the new positivism at that time.
Immanuel Kant went so far as to classify his own philosophy as a "critical history of modernity, rooted in Kant".
Immanuel Kant believed that mathematical truths were forms of synthetic a priori knowledge, which means they are necessary and universal, yet known through the a priori intuition of space and time, as transcendental preconditions of experience.
Mou Zongsan's study of Immanuel Kant has been cited as a highly crucial part in the development of Mou's personal philosophy, namely New Confucianism.