18 Facts About Jacques Hadamard


Jacques Salomon Hadamard was a French mathematician who made major contributions in number theory, complex analysis, differential geometry and partial differential equations.


The son of a teacher, Amedee Hadamard, of Jewish descent, and Claire Marie Jeanne Picard, Hadamard was born in Versailles, France and attended the Lycee Charlemagne and Lycee Louis-le-Grand, where his father taught.


In 1884 Jacques Hadamard entered the Ecole Normale Superieure, having placed first in the entrance examinations both there and at the Ecole Polytechnique.


Jacques Hadamard's teachers included Tannery, Hermite, Darboux, Appell, Goursat and Picard.


Jacques Hadamard obtained his doctorate in 1892 and in the same year was awarded the for his essay on the Riemann zeta function.


In 1892 Jacques Hadamard married Louise-Anna Trenel, of Jewish descent, with whom he had three sons and two daughters.


In Paris Jacques Hadamard concentrated his interests on the problems of mathematical physics, in particular partial differential equations, the calculus of variations and the foundations of functional analysis.


Jacques Hadamard introduced the idea of well-posed problem and the method of descent in the theory of partial differential equations, culminating in his seminal book on the subject, based on lectures given at Yale University in 1922.


Jacques Hadamard was elected to the French Academy of Sciences in 1916, in succession to Poincare, whose complete works he helped edit.


Jacques Hadamard became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1920.


Jacques Hadamard was elected a foreign member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR in 1929.


Jacques Hadamard visited the Soviet Union in 1930 and 1934 and China in 1936 at the invitation of Soviet and Chinese mathematicians.


Jacques Hadamard stayed in France at the beginning of the Second World War and escaped to southern France in 1940.


Jacques Hadamard moved to London in 1944 and returned to France when the war ended in 1945.


Jacques Hadamard was awarded the CNRS Gold medal for his lifetime achievements in 1956.


Jacques Hadamard's students included Maurice Frechet, Paul Levy, Szolem Mandelbrojt and Andre Weil.


Jacques Hadamard surveyed 100 of the leading physicists of the day, asking them how they did their work.


Jacques Hadamard described the process as having four steps of the five-step Graham Wallas creative process model, with the first three having been put forth by Helmholtz: Preparation, Incubation, Illumination, and Verification.