Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion.
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Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, the world's largest religion.
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Jesus was a Galilean Jew who underwent circumcision, was baptized by John the Baptist, and began his own ministry.
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Jesus's teachings were initially conserved by oral transmission and he himself was often referred to as "rabbi".
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Jesus was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, and crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Jerusalem.
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Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, and ascended into Heaven, from where he will return.
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Jesus's crucifixion is honored on Good Friday and his resurrection on Easter Sunday.
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In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill messianic prophecies, and was neither divine nor resurrected.
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Typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of [father's name]", or the individual's hometown.
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Jesus's will give birth to a son, and you are to give him the name Jesus, because he will save his people from their sins.
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English name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, itself a transliteration of the Greek.
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In Mark, Jesus is the Son of God whose mighty works demonstrate the presence of God's Kingdom.
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Jesus is a tireless wonder worker, the servant of both God and man.
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The Gospel of Matthew emphasizes that Jesus is the fulfillment of God's will as revealed in the Old Testament, and the Lord of the Church.
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Jesus is the friend of sinners and outcasts, come to seek and save the lost.
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Jesus is not only greater than any past human prophet but greater than any prophet could be.
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Matthew and Luke each describe Jesus' birth, especially that Jesus was born to a virgin named Mary in Bethlehem in fulfillment of prophecy.
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Jesus is called a te?t?? in Mark 6:3, traditionally understood as carpenter but it could cover makers of objects in various materials, including builders.
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The Gospels indicate that Jesus could read, paraphrase, and debate scripture, but this does not necessarily mean that he received formal scribal training.
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When Jesus is presented as a baby in the temple per Jewish Law, a man named Simeon says to Mary and Joseph that Jesus "shall stand as a sign of contradiction, while a sword will pierce your own soul.
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Synoptic accounts of Jesus' baptism are all preceded by information about John the Baptist.
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Later, Jesus identifies John as "the Elijah who was to come", the prophet who was expected to arrive before the "great and terrible day of the Lord".
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Notably, Jesus forbids those who recognize him as the messiah to speak of it, including people he heals and demons he exorcises.
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The Baptist sees Jesus and calls him the Lamb of God; the two hear this and follow Jesus.
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Jesus calls people to repent their sins and to devote themselves completely to God.
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In John, Jesus' miracles are described as "signs", performed to prove his mission and divinity.
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In John's Gospel, Jesus is presented as unpressured by the crowds, who often respond to his miracles with trust and faith.
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The gospel episodes that include descriptions of the miracles of Jesus often include teachings, and the miracles themselves involve an element of teaching.
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Description of the last week of the life of Jesus occupies about one third of the narrative in the canonical gospels, starting with Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem and ending with his Crucifixion.
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Jesus warns that these wonders will occur in the lifetimes of the hearers.
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Jesus comes into conflict with the Jewish elders, such as when they question his authority and when he criticizes them and calls them hypocrites.
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In John, Jesus has already cleansed the Second Temple during an earlier Passover visit to Jerusalem.
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Jesus then has them all drink from a cup, saying, "This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood, " The Christian sacrament or ordinance of the Eucharist is based on these events.
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In Matthew 26:57, Mark 14:53 and Luke 22:54, Jesus is taken to the house of the high priest, Caiaphas, where he is mocked and beaten that night.
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In Matthew and Luke, Jesus' answer is more ambiguous: in Matthew 26:64 he responds, "You have said so", and in Luke 22:70 he says, "You say that I am".
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Jesus gives the people a choice between Jesus and a murderer called Barabbas.
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At Calvary, Jesus is offered a sponge soaked in a concoction usually offered as a painkiller.
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Jesus tells the latter: "today you will be with me in Paradise.
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Jesus tells the beloved disciple to take care of his mother.
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Since the 18th century, three separate scholarly quests for the historical Jesus have taken place, each with distinct characteristics and based on different research criteria, which were often developed during the quest that applied them.
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Approaches to the historical reconstruction of the life of Jesus have varied from the "maximalist" approaches of the 19th century, in which the gospel accounts were accepted as reliable evidence wherever it is possible, to the "minimalist" approaches of the early 20th century, where hardly anything about Jesus was accepted as historical.
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For example, Thomas confirms that Jesus blessed the poor and that this saying circulated independently before being combined with similar sayings in the Q source.
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Scholars generally consider Tacitus's reference to the execution of Jesus to be both authentic and of historical value as an independent Roman source.
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Second, they present a rough picture of Jesus that is compatible with that found in the Christian sources: that Jesus was a teacher, had a reputation as a miracle worker, had a brother James, and died a violent death.
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Recent archaeological work, for example, indicates that Capernaum, a city important in Jesus' ministry, was poor and small, without even a forum or an agora.
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Jesus was a Galilean Jew, born around the beginning of the 1st century, who died in 30 or 33 AD in Judea.
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The general scholarly consensus is that Jesus was a contemporary of John the Baptist and was crucified as ordered by the Roman governor Pontius Pilate, who held office from 26 to 36 AD.
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Date range for Jesus' ministry has been estimated using several different approaches.
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In Mark, Jesus' family comes to get him, fearing that he is mad, and this account is thought to be historical because early Christians would likely not have invented it.
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Geza Vermes says that the doctrine of the virgin birth of Jesus arose from theological development rather than from historical events.
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Sanders says that the genealogies of Jesus are based not on historical information but on the authors' desire to show that Jesus was the universal Jewish savior.
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The Gospel of Luke reports that Jesus was a blood relative of John the Baptist, but scholars generally consider this connection to be invented.
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Jesus taught about the Jewish Law, seeking its true meaning, sometimes in opposition to other traditions.
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Jesus put love at the center of the Law, and following that Law was an apocalyptic necessity.
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Funk and Hoover note that typical of Jesus were paradoxical or surprising turns of phrase, such as advising one, when struck on the cheek, to offer the other cheek to be struck as well.
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Gospels portray Jesus teaching in well-defined sessions, such as the Sermon on the Mount in the Gospel of Matthew or the parallel Sermon on the Plain in Luke.
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Jesus chose twelve disciples, evidently as an apocalyptic message.
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In Ehrman's view, no Christians would have invented a line from Jesus, promising rulership to the disciple who betrayed him.
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Sanders says that Jesus' mission was not about repentance, although he acknowledges that this opinion is unpopular.
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Jesus argues that repentance appears as a strong theme only in Luke, that repentance was John the Baptist's message, and that Jesus' ministry would not have been scandalous if the sinners he ate with had been repentant.
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Jesus taught that an apocalyptic figure, the "Son of Man", would soon come on clouds of glory to gather the elect, or chosen ones.
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Jesus referred to himself as a "son of man" in the colloquial sense of "a person", but scholars do not know whether he meant himself when he referred to the heavenly "Son of Man".
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The tradition is ambiguous enough to leave room for debate as to whether Jesus defined his eschatological role as that of the messiah.
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Bart Ehrman argues that Jesus did consider himself to be the messiah, albeit in the sense that he would be the king of the new political order that God would usher in, not in the sense that most people today think of the term.
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Jesus caused a disturbance in the Second Temple, which was the center of Jewish religious and civil authority.
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Jesus held a last meal with his disciples, which is the origin of the Christian sacrament of bread and wine.
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Gospels say that Jesus was betrayed to the authorities by a disciple, and many scholars consider this report to be highly reliable.
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Jesus was executed on the orders of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect of Judaea.
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The Sadducean high-priestly leaders of the Temple more plausibly had Jesus executed for political reasons than for his teaching.
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The followers of Jesus formed a community to wait for his return and the founding of his kingdom.
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The portraits of Jesus constructed in these quests often differ from each other, and from the image portrayed in the Gospels.
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Jesus is seen as the founder of, in the words of Sanders, a "renewal movement within Judaism".
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Since the 18th century, scholars have occasionally put forth that Jesus was a political national messiah, but the evidence for this portrait is negligible.
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Likewise, the proposal that Jesus was a Zealot does not fit with the earliest strata of the Synoptic tradition.
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Jesus grew up in Galilee and much of his ministry took place there.
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Jesus likely had a beard that was not particularly long or heavy.
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Christian views of Jesus are derived from various sources, including the canonical gospels and New Testament letters such as the Pauline epistles and the Johannine writings.
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These documents outline the key beliefs held by Christians about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life, and that he is the Christ and the Son of God.
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Jesus is thus seen as the new and last Adam, whose obedience contrasts with Adam's disobedience.
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Judaic criticism of Jesus is long-standing, and includes a range of stories in the Talmud, written and compiled from the 3rd to the 5th century AD.
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The Mishneh Torah, a late 12th-century work of Jewish law written by Moses Maimonides, states that Jesus is a "stumbling block" who makes "the majority of the world to err and serve a god other than the Lord".
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Jesus is considered one of the four prophets, along with Zoroaster, Gautama Buddha and Mani.
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Jesus is called a "spirit from God" because he was born through the action of the Spirit, but that belief does not imply his pre-existence.
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However, Jesus is a central figure in Islamic eschatology: Muslims believe that he will return to Earth at the end of time and defeat the Antichrist by killing him.
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In Baha'i thought, Jesus was a perfect incarnation of God's attributes, but Baha'i teachings reject the idea that "ineffable essence" of the Divinity was contained within a single human body because of their beliefs regarding "omnipresence and transcendence of the essence of God".
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In Christian Gnosticism, Jesus was sent from the divine realm and provided the secret knowledge (gnosis) necessary for salvation.
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Some Gnostics, however, were docetics, believed that Jesus did not have a physical body, but only appeared to possess one.
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Paramahansa Yogananda, an Indian guru, taught that Jesus was the reincarnation of Elisha and a student of John the Baptist, the reincarnation of Elijah.
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Antony Theodore in the book Jesus Christ in Love writes that there is an underlying oneness of Jesus' teachings with the messages contained in Quran, Vedas, Upanishads, Talmud and Avesta.
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Thereafter, despite the lack of biblical references or historical records, a wide range of depictions of Jesus appeared during the last two millennia, often influenced by cultural settings, political circumstances and theological contexts.
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The use of depictions of Jesus is advocated by the leaders of denominations such as Anglicans and Catholics and is a key element of the Eastern Orthodox tradition.
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Jesus appears as an infant in a manger in Christmas creches, which depict the Nativity scene.
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Jesus is typically joined by Mary, Joseph, animals, shepherds, angels, and the Magi.
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However, throughout the history of Christianity, a number of relics attributed to Jesus have been claimed, although doubt has been cast on them.
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Similarly, while experts debate whether Jesus was crucified with three nails or with four, at least thirty holy nails continue to be venerated as relics across Europe.
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Some relics, such as purported remnants of the crown of thorns placed on the head of Jesus, receive only a modest number of pilgrims, while the Shroud of Turin, has received millions, including popes John Paul II and Benedict XVI.
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