65 Facts About Julius Caesar


Gaius Julius Caesar was a Roman general and statesman.


Julius Caesar played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire.


Julius Caesar gave citizenship to many residents of far regions of the Roman Republic.


Julius Caesar centralized the bureaucracy of the Republic and was eventually proclaimed "dictator for life".


Julius Caesar was an accomplished author and historian as well as a statesman; much of his life is known from his own accounts of his military campaigns.


Julius Caesar is considered by many historians to be one of the greatest military commanders in history.


Julius Caesar's cognomen was adopted as a synonym for "Emperor"; the title "Caesar" was used throughout the Roman Empire, giving rise to modern descendants such as Kaiser and Tsar.


Julius Caesar has frequently appeared in literary and artistic works, and his political philosophy, known as Caesarism, has inspired politicians into the modern era.


Julius Caesar's father did not seek a consulship during the domination of Lucius Cornelius Cinna and instead chose retirement.


Julius Caesar then went into hiding before his relatives and contacts among the Vestal Virgins were able to intercede on his behalf.


Julius Caesar then left Italy to serve in the staff of the governor of Asia, Marcus Minucius Thermus.


Julius Caesar then served at the Siege of Mytilene where he won the civic crown for saving the life of a fellow citizen in battle.


Julius Caesar was alleged to have wanted to join in on the consul Lepidus' revolt that year but this is likely literary embellishment of Caesar's desire for tyranny from a young age.


Julius Caesar's election gave him a lifetime seat in the senate.


Julius Caesar quickly re-married, taking the hand of Sulla's grand-daughter Pompeia.


For much of this period, Julius Caesar was one of Pompey's supporters.


Julius Caesar restored the trophies won by Marius, and taken down by Sulla, over Jugurtha and the Cimbri.


Many scholars have expressed astonishment that Julius Caesar's candidacy was taken seriously, but this was not without historical precedent.


Many sources assert that Julius Caesar supported the land reform proposals brought that year by plebeian tribune Publius Servilius Rullus there are no ancient sources so attesting.


Julius Caesar likely advocated the former, which was a compromise position that would place the senate within the bounds of the, and was initially successful in swaying the body; a later intervention by Cato swayed the senate at the end for execution.


Julius Caesar then supported the attempt by plebeian tribune Metellus Nepos to transfer the command against Catiline from the consul of 63, Gaius Antonius Hybrida, to Pompey.


Deeply indebted from his campaigns for the praetorship and for the pontificate, Julius Caesar required military victory beyond the normal provincial extortion to pay them off.


Julius Caesar campaigned against the Callaeci and Lusitani and seized the Callaeci capital in northwestern Spain, bringing Roman troops to the Atlantic and seizing enough plunder to pay his debts.


Julius Caesar's first act was to publish the minutes of the senate and the assemblies, signalling the senate's accountability to the public.


Julius Caesar brought and passed a one-third write-down of tax farmers' arrears for Crassus and ratification of Pompey's eastern settlements.


When his consulship ended, Julius Caesar's legislation was challenged by two of the new praetors but discussion in the senate stalled and was regardless dropped.


Julius Caesar was able to lure the rebels into unfavourable terrain and routed them in battle.


Julius Caesar's success was evidently recognised when the senate voted state funds for some of Caesar's legions, which until this time Caesar paid for personally.


Julius Caesar, after capturing communication routes to Rome, paused and opened negotiations, but they fell apart amid mutual distrust.


Julius Caesar responded by advancing south, seeking to capture Pompey to force a conference.


Julius Caesar defeated two of Pompey's legates at the Battle of Ilerda before forcing surrender of the third; his legates moved into Sicily and into Africa, though the African expedition failed.


Julius Caesar besieged Pompey at Dyrrhachium, but Pompey was able to break out and force Julius Caesar's forces to flee.


When Julius Caesar landed at Antioch, he learnt that during his time in Egypt, the king of what is Crimea, Pharnaces, had attempted to seize his father's kingdom of Pontus across the Black Sea.


Julius Caesar's invasion had swept aside Caesar's legates and the local client kings but Caesar engaged him at Zela and defeated him immediately, leading Caesar to write, Pompey's previous victories over such poor enemies.


Julius Caesar led Vercingetorix, Cleopatra's younger sister Arsinoe, and Juba's son before his chariot; Vercingetorix was executed.


Julius Caesar had not proscribed his enemies, instead pardoning almost all, and there was no serious public opposition to him.


The first goal was accomplished when Julius Caesar defeated Pompey and his supporters.


When Julius Caesar returned to Rome, the Senate granted him triumphs for his victories, ostensibly those over Gaul, Egypt, Pharnaces, and Juba, rather than over his Roman opponents.


Julius Caesar ordered a census be taken, which forced a reduction in the grain dole, and decreed that jurors could come only from the Senate or the equestrian ranks.


Julius Caesar passed a sumptuary law that restricted the purchase of certain luxuries.


Julius Caesar then passed a term-limit law applicable to governors.


Julius Caesar passed a debt-restructuring law, which ultimately eliminated about a fourth of all debts owed.


Julius Caesar tightly regulated the purchase of state-subsidised grain and reduced the number of recipients to a fixed number, all of whom were entered into a special register.


Julius Caesar appointed officials to carry out his land reforms and ordered the rebuilding of Carthage and Corinth.


Julius Caesar extended Latin rights throughout the Roman world, and then abolished the tax system and reverted to the earlier version that allowed cities to collect tribute however they wanted, rather than needing Roman intermediaries.


Julius Caesar's assassination prevented further and larger schemes, which included the construction of an unprecedented temple to Mars, a huge theatre, and a library on the scale of the Library of Alexandria.


Julius Caesar wanted to convert Ostia to a major port, and cut a canal through the Isthmus of Corinth.


Julius Caesar was granted further honours, which were later used to justify his assassination as a would-be divine monarch: coins were issued bearing his image and his statue was placed next to those of the kings.


Julius Caesar was granted a golden chair in the Senate, was allowed to wear triumphal dress whenever he chose, and was offered a form of semi-official or popular cult, with Antony as his high priest.


Julius Caesar held both the dictatorship, but alternated between the consulship and the proconsulship.


In 46 BC, Julius Caesar gave himself the title of "Prefect of the Morals", which was an office that was new only in name, as its powers were identical to those of the censors.


Julius Caesar set the precedent, which his imperial successors followed, of requiring the Senate to bestow various titles and honours upon him.


Julius Caesar was, for example, given the title of Pater Patriae and imperator.


Julius Caesar then increased the number of magistrates who were elected each year, which created a large pool of experienced magistrates and allowed Julius Caesar to reward his supporters.


Julius Caesar even took steps to transform Italy into a Roman province and to link more tightly the other provinces of the empire into a single cohesive unit.


The plotters had anticipated this and, fearing that Antony would come to Julius Caesar's aid, had arranged for Trebonius to intercept him just as he approached the portico of the Theatre of Pompey, where the session was to be held, and detain him outside.


Julius Caesar turned around quickly and caught Casca by the arm.


Julius Caesar attempted to get away, but, blinded by blood, he tripped and fell; the men continued stabbing him as he lay defenceless on the lower steps of the portico.


Plutarch reports that Julius Caesar said nothing, pulling his toga over his head when he saw Brutus among the conspirators.


Antony, the consul who escaped the assassination, urged an illogical compromise position in the senate: Julius Caesar was not declared a tyrant and the conspirators were not punished.


Suetonius, writing more than a century after Julius Caesar's death, describes Julius Caesar as "tall of stature with a fair complexion, shapely limbs, a somewhat full face, and keen black eyes".


Julius Caesar himself denied the accusations repeatedly throughout his lifetime, and according to Cassius Dio, even under oath on one occasion.


However, Julius Caesar wrote those texts with his political career in mind.


Julius Caesar is considered one of the first historical figures to fold his message scrolls into a concertina form, which made them easier to read.


Julius Caesar is seen as the main example of Caesarism, a form of political rule led by a charismatic strongman whose rule is based upon a cult of personality, whose rationale is the need to rule by force, establishing a violent social order, and being a regime involving prominence of the military in the government.