96 Facts About Muhammad


Muhammad ibn Abdullah was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

FactSnippet No. 525,352

Muhammad is believed to be the Seal of the Prophets within Islam.

FactSnippet No. 525,353

Muhammad united Arabia into a single Muslim polity, with the Quran as well as his teachings and practices forming the basis of Islamic religious belief.

FactSnippet No. 525,354

Muhammad was the son of Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib and Amina bint Wahb.

FactSnippet No. 525,355

Muhammad was raised under the care of his grandfather, Abd al-Muttalib, and paternal uncle, Abu Talib.

FactSnippet No. 525,356

When he was 40, Muhammad reported being visited by Gabriel in the cave and receiving his first revelation from God.

FactSnippet No. 525,357

In 613, Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "submission" to God is the right way of life (din), and that he was a prophet and messenger of God, similar to the other prophets in Islam.

FactSnippet No. 525,358

Muhammad's followers were initially few in number, and experienced hostility from Meccan polytheists for 13 years.

FactSnippet No. 525,359

In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina.

FactSnippet No. 525,360

Revelations that Muhammad reported receiving until his death form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the verbatim "Word of God" on which the religion is based.

FactSnippet No. 525,361

Name Muhammad means "praiseworthy" and appears four times in the Quran.

FactSnippet No. 525,362

Abu al-Qasim Muhammad ibn Abdullah ibn Abd al-Muttalib ibn Hashim was born in Mecca about the year 570 and his birthday is believed to be in the month of Rabi' al-awwal.

FactSnippet No. 525,363

Muhammad belonged to the Banu Hashim clan, part of the Quraysh tribe, which was one of Mecca's prominent families, although it appears less prosperous during Muhammad's early lifetime.

FactSnippet No. 525,364

Muhammad stayed with his foster-mother, Halimah bint Abi Dhuayb, and her husband until he was two years old.

FactSnippet No. 525,365

At the age of six, Muhammad lost his biological mother Amina to illness and became an orphan.

FactSnippet No. 525,366

Muhammad then came under the care of his uncle Abu Talib, the new leader of the Banu Hashim.

FactSnippet No. 525,367

Islamic tradition states that when Muhammad was either nine or twelve while accompanying the Meccans' caravan to Syria, he met a Christian monk or hermit named Bahira who is said to have foreseen Muhammad's career as a prophet of God.

FactSnippet No. 525,368

Muhammad's reputation attracted a proposal in 595 from Khadijah, a successful businesswoman.

FactSnippet No. 525,369

Muhammad consented to the marriage, which by all accounts was a happy one.

FactSnippet No. 525,370

Several years later, according to a narration collected by historian Ibn Ishaq, Muhammad was involved with a well-known story about setting the Black Stone in place in the wall of the Kaaba in 605 CE.

FactSnippet No. 525,371

Muhammad asked for a cloth and laid the Black Stone in its center.

FactSnippet No. 525,372

Muhammad began to pray alone in a cave named Hira on Mount Jabal al-Nour, near Mecca for several weeks every year.

FactSnippet No. 525,373

Islamic tradition holds that during one of his visits to that cave, in the year 610 the angel Gabriel appeared to him and commanded Muhammad to recite verses that would be included in the Quran.

FactSnippet No. 525,374

Muhammad feared that others would dismiss his claims as being possessed.

FactSnippet No. 525,375

Shi'a tradition states Muhammad was not surprised or frightened at Gabriel's appearance; rather he welcomed the angel, as if he was expected.

FactSnippet No. 525,376

The initial revelation was followed by a three-year pause during which Muhammad felt depressed and further gave himself to prayers and spiritual practices.

FactSnippet No. 525,377

Sahih Bukhari narrates Muhammad describing his revelations as "sometimes it is like the ringing of a bell".

FactSnippet No. 525,378

Muhammad was confident that he could distinguish his own thoughts from these messages.

FactSnippet No. 525,379

Muhammad did not only warn those who rejected God's revelation, but dispensed good news for those who abandoned evil, listening to the divine words and serving God.

FactSnippet No. 525,380

Muhammad's mission involves preaching monotheism: The Quran commands Muhammad to proclaim and praise the name of his Lord and instructs him not to worship idols or associate other deities with God.

FactSnippet No. 525,381

Muhammad's was followed by Muhammad's ten-year-old cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib, close friend Abu Bakr, and adopted son Zaid.

FactSnippet No. 525,382

In 615, some of Muhammad's followers emigrated to the Ethiopian Kingdom of Aksum and founded a small colony under the protection of the Christian Ethiopian emperor Ashama ibn Abjar.

FactSnippet No. 525,383

Muhammad retracted the verses the next day at the behest of Gabriel, claiming that the verses were whispered by the devil himself.

FactSnippet No. 525,384

Islamic tradition states that in 620, Muhammad experienced the Isra and Mi'raj, a miraculous night-long journey said to have occurred with the angel Gabriel.

FactSnippet No. 525,385

Muhammad then visited Ta'if, another important city in Arabia, and tried to find a protector, but his effort failed and further brought him into physical danger.

FactSnippet No. 525,386

Muhammad took this opportunity to look for a new home for himself and his followers.

FactSnippet No. 525,387

Delegation, consisting of the representatives of the twelve important clans of Medina, invited Muhammad to serve as chief arbitrator for the entire community; due to his status as a neutral outsider.

FactSnippet No. 525,388

Muhammad instructed his followers to emigrate to Medina, until nearly all his followers left Mecca.

FactSnippet No. 525,389

Muhammad delivered Quranic verses permitting Muslims to fight the Meccans.

FactSnippet No. 525,390

Muhammad adjusted to the new direction, and his companions praying with him followed his lead, beginning the tradition of facing Mecca during prayer.

FactSnippet No. 525,391

Muhammad ordered a number of raids to capture Meccan caravans, but only the 8th of them, the Raid of Nakhla, resulted in actual fighting and capture of booty and prisoners.

FactSnippet No. 525,392

Muhammad expelled from Medina the Banu Qaynuqa, one of three main Jewish tribes, but some historians contend that the expulsion happened after Muhammad's death.

FactSnippet No. 525,393

Muhammad eventually conceded to the younger Muslims and readied the Muslim force for battle.

FactSnippet No. 525,394

Questions accumulated about the reasons for the loss; Muhammad delivered Quranic verses 3:152 indicating that the defeat was twofold: partly a punishment for disobedience, partly a test for steadfastness.

FactSnippet No. 525,395

Muhammad gained support from the nomadic tribes to the north and east of Medina; using propaganda about Muhammad's weakness, promises of booty, memories of Quraysh prestige and through bribery.

FactSnippet No. 525,396

Muhammad heard of men massing with hostile intentions against Medina, and reacted in a severe manner.

FactSnippet No. 525,397

Around a year later, Muhammad expelled the Banu Nadir from Medina forcing their emigration to Syria; he allowed them to take some possessions, as he was unable to subdue the Banu Nadir in their strongholds.

FactSnippet No. 525,398

Muhammad prepared a force of about 3, 000 men and adopted a form of defense unknown in Arabia at that time; the Muslims dug a trench wherever Medina lay open to cavalry attack.

FactSnippet No. 525,399

Aisha was exonerated from accusations when Muhammad announced he had received a revelation confirming Aisha's innocence and directing that charges of adultery be supported by four eyewitnesses.

FactSnippet No. 525,400

Whoever in Arabia wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with Muhammad can do so, and whoever wishes to enter into a treaty or covenant with the Quraysh can do so.

FactSnippet No. 525,401

Muhammad evaded them by taking a more difficult route, enabling his followers to reach al-Hudaybiyya just outside Mecca.

FactSnippet No. 525,402

Muhammad called upon the pilgrims to make a pledge not to flee if the situation descended into war with Mecca.

FactSnippet No. 525,403

Muhammad declared an amnesty for past offences, except for ten men and women who were "guilty of murder or other offences or had sparked off the war and disrupted the peace".

FactSnippet No. 525,404

Muhammad defeated the Hawazin and Thaqif tribes in the Battle of Hunayn.

FactSnippet No. 525,405

Muhammad ordered the destruction of any remaining pagan idols in Eastern Arabia.

FactSnippet No. 525,406

Muhammad refused to accept the city's surrender until they agreed to convert to Islam and allowed men to destroy the statue of their goddess Al-Lat.

FactSnippet No. 525,407

Muhammad required a military and political agreement according to which they "acknowledge the suzerainty of Medina, to refrain from attack on the Muslims and their allies, and to pay the Zakat, the Muslim religious levy.

FactSnippet No. 525,408

In 632, at the end of the tenth year after migration to Medina, Muhammad completed his first true Islamic pilgrimage, setting precedent for the annual Great Pilgrimage, known as Hajj.

FactSnippet No. 525,409

Muhammad abolished old blood feuds and disputes based on the former tribal system and asked for old pledges to be returned as implications of the creation of the new Islamic community.

FactSnippet No. 525,410

Muhammad addressed the issue of inheritance by forbidding false claims of paternity or of a client relationship to the deceased and forbade his followers to leave their wealth to a testamentary heir.

FactSnippet No. 525,411

Muhammad upheld the sacredness of four lunar months in each year.

FactSnippet No. 525,412

When Saud bin Abdul-Aziz took Medina in 1805, Muhammad's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornamentation.

FactSnippet No. 525,413

Muhammad united several of the tribes of Arabia into a single Arab Muslim religious polity in the last years of his life.

FactSnippet No. 525,414

Muhammad's message transformed society and moral orders of life in the Arabian Peninsula; society focused on the changes to perceived identity, world view, and the hierarchy of values.

FactSnippet No. 525,415

The Quran requires payment of an alms tax for the benefit of the poor; as Muhammad's power grew he demanded that tribes who wished to ally with him implement the zakat in particular.

FactSnippet No. 525,416

Muhammad was middle-sized, did not have lank or crisp hair, was not fat, had a white circular face, wide black eyes, and long eye-lashes.

FactSnippet No. 525,417

Muhammad had the "seal of prophecy" between his shoulder blades.

FactSnippet No. 525,418

Muhammad was taller than middling stature but shorter than conspicuous tallness.

FactSnippet No. 525,419

Muhammad had a wide forehead, and fine, long, arched eyebrows which did not meet.

FactSnippet No. 525,420

Muhammad's neck was like the neck of an ivory statue, with the purity of silver.

FactSnippet No. 525,421

Muhammad was proportionate, stout, firm-gripped, even of belly and chest, broad-chested and broad-shouldered.

FactSnippet No. 525,422

Muhammad was not marred by a skinny body, nor was he overly small in the head and neck.

FactSnippet No. 525,423

Muhammad was graceful and elegant, with intensely black eyes and thick eyelashes.

FactSnippet No. 525,424

Muhammad's beard was thick, and his eyebrows were finely arched and joined together.

FactSnippet No. 525,425

Muhammad was from afar the most beautiful of men and the most glorious, and close up he was the sweetest and the loveliest.

FactSnippet No. 525,426

Muhammad was sweet of speech and articulate, but not petty or trifling.

FactSnippet No. 525,427

Muhammad's speech was a string of cascading pearls, measured so that none despaired of its length, and no eye challenged him because of brevity.

FactSnippet No. 525,428

Muhammad has friends surrounding him, who listen to his words.

FactSnippet No. 525,429

Muhammad's life is traditionally defined into two periods: pre-hijra in Mecca (from 570 to 622), and post-hijra in Medina (from 622 until 632).

FactSnippet No. 525,430

At the age of 25, Muhammad married the wealthy Khadijah bint Khuwaylid who was 40 years old.

FactSnippet No. 525,431

Muhammad did not enter into marriage with another woman during this marriage.

FactSnippet No. 525,432

Muhammad is said to have asked for arrangements to marry both.

FactSnippet No. 525,433

Muhammad performed household chores such as preparing food, sewing clothes, and repairing shoes.

FactSnippet No. 525,434

Muhammad is said to have had accustomed his wives to dialogue; he listened to their advice, and the wives debated and even argued with him.

FactSnippet No. 525,435

Muhammad treated slaves as human beings and clearly held some in the highest esteem".

FactSnippet No. 525,436

Every Muslim proclaims in Shahadah: "I testify that there is no god but God, and I testify that Muhammad is a Messenger of God.

FactSnippet No. 525,437

Western historian of Islam Denis Gril believes the Quran does not overtly describe Muhammad performing miracles, and the supreme miracle of Muhammad is identified with the Quran itself.

FactSnippet No. 525,438

Sunnah represents actions and sayings of Muhammad and covers a broad array of activities and beliefs ranging from religious rituals, personal hygiene, and burial of the dead to the mystical questions involving the love between humans and God.

FactSnippet No. 525,439

Muhammad's birthday is celebrated as a major feast throughout the Islamic world, excluding Wahhabi-dominated Saudi Arabia where these public celebrations are discouraged.

FactSnippet No. 525,440

Muslim mystics, known as sufis, who were seeking for the inner meaning of the Quran and the inner nature of Muhammad, viewed the prophet of Islam not only as a prophet but as a perfect human being.

FactSnippet No. 525,441

Muhammad rejects the common view that Muhammad is an impostor and argues that the Quran proffers "the most sublime truths of cult and morals"; it defines the unity of God with an "admirable concision.

FactSnippet No. 525,442

Watt, however, says that sincerity does not directly imply correctness: in contemporary terms, Muhammad might have mistaken his subconscious for divine revelation.

FactSnippet No. 525,443

Alford T Welch holds that Muhammad was able to be so influential and successful because of his firm belief in his vocation.

FactSnippet No. 525,444

Muhammad is thought to be the final manifestation, or seal of the Adamic cycle, but consider his teachings to have been superseded by those of Baha'u'llah, the founder of the Baha'i faith, and the first manifestation of the current cycle.

FactSnippet No. 525,445

Druze tradition honors several "mentors" and "prophets", and Muhammad is considered an important prophet of God in the Druze faith, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history.

FactSnippet No. 525,446

Criticism of Muhammad has existed since the 7th century, when Muhammad was decried by his non-Muslim Arab contemporaries for preaching monotheism, and by the Jewish tribes of Arabia for his perceived appropriation of Biblical narratives and figures and proclamation of himself as the "Seal of the Prophets".

FactSnippet No. 525,447