14 Facts About OSI model


Open Systems Interconnection model is a conceptual model that 'provides a common basis for the coordination of [ISO] standards development for the purpose of systems interconnection'.

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Each layer in the OSI model has its own well-defined functions, and the functions of each layer communicate and interact with the layers immediately above and below it, unless the layer does not have layers below or above.

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In either case, each layer of the OSI model has its own well-defined functions that describe the basic applications for communication of all communication protocols.

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Additionally, the OSI model allows transparent communication through equivalent exchange of protocol data units between two parties, through what is known as peer-to-peer networking .

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Development of the OSI model started in the late 1970s to support the emergence of the diverse computer networking methods that were competing for application in the large national networking efforts in the world .

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The OSI model was first defined in raw form in Washington, DC, in February 1978 by Hubert Zimmermann of France and the refined but still draft standard was published by the ISO in 1980.

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Drafters of the reference OSI model had to contend with many competing priorities and interests.

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The OSI reference model was a major advance in the standardisation of network concepts.

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Concept of a seven-layer OSI model was provided by the work of Charles Bachman at Honeywell Information Systems.

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OSI model was an industry effort, attempting to get industry participants to agree on common network standards to provide multi-vendor interoperability.

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OSI model is still used as a reference for teaching and documentation; however, the OSI protocols originally conceived for the model did not gain popularity.

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Some connection-oriented transport protocols, such as TCP and the OSI model connection-oriented transport protocol, perform segmentation and reassembly of segments on the receiving side; connectionless transport protocols, such as UDP and the OSI model connectionless transport protocol, usually do not.

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OSI model connection-oriented transport protocol defines five classes of connection-mode transport protocols ranging from class 0 to class 4 .

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Application layer is the layer of the OSI model that is closest to the end user, which means both the OSI Application Layer and the user interact directly with software application that implements a component of communication between the client and server, such as File Explorer and Microsoft Word.

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