**1.**

Pascal's calculator is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642.

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Pascal's calculator is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in 1642.

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Pascal's calculator designed the machine to add and subtract two numbers directly and to perform multiplication and division through repeated addition or subtraction.

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Pascal's calculator was especially successful in the design of its carry mechanism, which adds 1 to 9 on one dial, and carries 1 to the next dial when the first dial changes from 9 to 0.

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Pascal's calculator's innovation made each digit independent of the state of the others, enabling multiple carries to rapidly cascade from one digit to another regardless of the machine's capacity.

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Pascal's calculator had been assisting his father, who worked as a tax commissioner, and sought to produce a device which could reduce some of his workload.

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Since the gears of the Pascal's calculator rotated in only one direction, negative numbers could not be directly summed.

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Method of re-zeroing that Pascal chose, which propagates a carry right through the machine, is the most demanding task for a mechanical Pascal's calculator and proves, before each operation, that the machine is fully functional.

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Pascal's calculator hid the theory from artisans, instead promoting that they should simply remember what to do, not necessarily why they should do it, i e, until "practice has made the rules of theory so common that [the rules] have finally been reduced into art”.

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In contrast, Samuel Morland, one of Pascal's calculator contemporaries working on creating a calculating machine, likely succeeded because of his ability to manage good relations with his craftsmen.

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The great innovation in Pascal's calculator was that it was designed so that each input wheel is totally independent from all the others and carries are propagated in sequence.

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Pascal's calculator first tried to build a machine that could multiply automatically while sitting on top of the Pascaline, assuming that all the dials on Pascal's calculator could be operated at the same time.

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Pascal's calculator then devised a competing design, the Stepped Reckoner which was meant to perform additions, subtractions and multiplications automatically and division under operator control.

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Pascal's calculator's report was favorable except for the sequence in the carry.

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Pascal's calculator was the first to have cursors to inscribe the first operand and a movable carriage for results.

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Pascal's calculator was the most successful mechanical calculator developed in the 17th century for the addition and subtraction of large numbers.

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