49 Facts About ADHD


ADHD symptoms arise from executive dysfunction, and emotional dysregulation is often considered a core symptom.

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ADHD is associated with other neurodevelopmental and mental disorders as well as some non-psychiatric disorders, which can cause additional impairment, especially in modern society.

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ADHD is diagnosed approximately twice as often in boys than in girls, and 1.

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ADHD is a well-validated clinical diagnosis in children and adults, and the debate in the scientific community mainly centers on how it is diagnosed and treated.

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ADHD was officially known as attention deficit disorder from 1980 to 1987; prior to the 1980s, it was known as hyperkinetic reaction of childhood.

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Symptoms similar to those of ADHD have been described in medical literature dating back to the 18th century.

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Girls and women with ADHD tend to display fewer hyperactivity and impulsivity symptoms but more symptoms of inattention and distractibility.

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Difficulties managing anger are more common in children with ADHD as are delays in speech, language and motor development.

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In children, ADHD occurs with other disorders about two-thirds of the time.

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ADHD is not considered a learning disability, but it very frequently causes academic difficulties.

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ADHD is often comorbid with disruptive, impulse control, and conduct disorders.

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Adolescents with ADHD who have CD are more likely to develop antisocial personality disorder in adulthood.

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Brain imaging supports that CD and ADHD are separate conditions, wherein conduct disorder was shown to reduce the size of one's temporal lobe and limbic system, and increase the size of one's orbitofrontal cortex, whereas ADHD was shown to reduce connections in the cerebellum and prefrontal cortex more broadly.

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Adults and children with ADHD sometimes have bipolar disorder, which requires careful assessment to accurately diagnose and treat both conditions.

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In children with ADHD, insomnia is the most common sleep disorder with behavioral therapy being the preferred treatment.

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However, restless legs can simply be a part of ADHD and requires careful assessment to differentiate between the two disorders.

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Individuals with ADHD are 4x more likely to develop and be diagnosed with an eating disorder compared to those without ADHD.

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Malnourishment can result in symptoms that look similar to those of ADHD, which has the potential to be misdiagnosed as "ADHD" without proper clinical assessment and screening for disordered eating and nutritional adequacy.

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Children with ADHD have a higher risk for migraine headaches, but have no increased risk of tension-type headaches.

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Systematic reviews conducted in 2017 and 2020 found strong evidence that ADHD is associated with increased suicide risk across all age groups, as well as growing evidence that an ADHD diagnosis in childhood or adolescence represents a significant future suicidal risk factor.

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Certain studies have found that people with ADHD tend to have lower scores on intelligence quotient tests.

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ADHD is generally claimed to be the result of neurological dysfunction in processes associated with the production or use of dopamine and norepinephrine in various brain structures, but there are no confirmed causes.

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The siblings of children with ADHD are three to four times more likely to develop the disorder than siblings of children without the disorder.

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Research does not support popular beliefs that ADHD is caused by eating too much refined sugar, watching too much television, parenting, poverty or family chaos; however, they might worsen ADHD symptoms in certain people.

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Behaviors typical of ADHD occur more commonly in children who have experienced violence and emotional abuse.

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Current models of ADHD suggest that it is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems, particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine.

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In children with ADHD, there is a general reduction of volume in certain brain structures, with a proportionally greater decrease in the volume in the left-sided prefrontal cortex.

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ADHD psychostimulants possess treatment efficacy because they increase neurotransmitter activity in these systems.

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People with ADHD appear to have unimpaired long-term memory, and deficits in long-term recall appear to be attributed to impairments in working memory.

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Children with ADHD often find it difficult to focus on long-term over short-term rewards, and exhibit impulsive behavior for short-term rewards.

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ADHD is diagnosed by an assessment of a person's behavioral and mental development, including ruling out the effects of drugs, medications, and other medical or psychiatric problems as explanations for the symptoms.

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The DSM-IV criteria for diagnosis of ADHD is more likely to diagnose ADHD than is the ICD-10 criteria.

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ADHD is alternately classified as neurodevelopmental disorder or a disruptive behavior disorder along with ODD, CD, and antisocial personality disorder.

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Adults with ADHD are diagnosed under the same criteria, including that their signs must have been present by the age of six to twelve.

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Management of ADHD typically involves counseling or medications, either alone or in combination.

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ADHD stimulants improve persistence and task performance in children with ADHD.

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Long-term effects of ADHD medication have yet to be fully determined, although stimulants are generally beneficial and safe for up to two years for children and adolescents.

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The majority of studies on nicotine and other nicotinic agonists as treatments for ADHD have shown favorable results; however, no nicotinic drug has been approved for ADHD treatment.

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ADHD is diagnosed approximately three times more often in boys than in girls.

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Crosscultural differences in diagnosis of ADHD can be attributed to the long-lasting effects of harmful, racially targeted medical practices.

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Cases of misdiagnosis in ADHD can occur due to stereotyping of non-caucasian individuals.

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ADHD made observations about children showing signs of being inattentive and having the "fidgets".

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The first clear description of ADHD is credited to George Still in 1902 during a series of lectures he gave to the Royal College of Physicians of London.

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ADHD noted both nature and nurture could be influencing this disorder.

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ADHD was split into the current three sub-types because of a field trial completed by Lahey and colleagues.

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Positions range from the view that ADHD is within the normal range of behavior to the hypothesis that ADHD is a genetic condition.

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Some sociologists consider ADHD to be an example of the medicalization of deviant behavior, that is, the turning of the previously issue of school performance into a medical one.

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Possible positive traits of ADHD are a new avenue of research, and therefore limited.

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Some people with ADHD are interested in entrepreneurship, and have some traits which could be considered useful to entrepreneurial skills: curiosity, openness to experience, impulsivity, risk-taking, and hyperfocus.

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