Albert Luthuli returned to his family's ancestral home of Groutville in 1908 to attend school under the care of his uncle.
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Albert Luthuli returned to his family's ancestral home of Groutville in 1908 to attend school under the care of his uncle.
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Albert Luthuli's teaching was recognized by the government and he was offered a bursary to study for the Higher Teacher's Diploma at Adams College.
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Albert Luthuli joined the African National Congress in 1944 and was elected the provincial president of the Natal branch in 1951.
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Albert Luthuli was against the use of violence, but as time passed he gradually accepted it.
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Albert Luthuli stayed committed to nonviolence on a personal level.
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In 1961, Albert Luthuli was awarded the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize for his role in leading the nonviolent anti-apartheid movement.
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Albert Luthuli formed multi-racial alliances with the South African Indian Congress and the white Congress of Democrats, which drew frequent backlash from Africanists in the ANC.
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Albert Luthuli was born at the Solusi Mission Station, a Seventh-day Adventist missionary station, in 1898 to John and Mtonya Luthuli who had settled in the Bulawayo area of Rhodesia.
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Albert Luthuli was the youngest of three children and had two brothers, Alfred Nsusana and Mpangwa, who died at birth.
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Albert Luthuli's lineage is often traced back to his paternal grandparents Ntaba ka Madunjini and Titsi Mthethwa who were born in the early nineteenth century and were among the first converts of Aldin Grout, a missionary from the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, which was based near the Umvoti River north of Durban.
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Albert Luthuli would stay in the Vryheid district of Northern Natal, where they lived on a farm of a Seventh-day Adventist.
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In Martin's Zulu and Christian household, Albert Luthuli would perform duties expected of a boy in traditional Zulu society such as fetching water, herding, and building fires.
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Under Martin's care, Albert Luthuli was provided with an early knowledge of traditional African politics and affairs, which aided him in his future career as a traditional chief.
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Albert Luthuli would take in laundry from European families in the township of Stanger to earn the necessary money for school.
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Albert Luthuli was then able to go to the Ohlange Institute after he had passed Standard 4 at the ABM mission school in 1914.
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Albert Luthuli was the first President-General of the South African Native National Congress, and founded the first Zulu-language newspaper Ilanga lase Natal.
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Albert Luthuli joined the ANC in 1944, partially out of respect to his former school principal.
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Albert Luthuli describes his time at Ohlange as 'rough-and-tumble' due to the outbreak of World War I, rationing and wartime conditions which brought a shortage of food to the African population.
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At Edendale, Albert Luthuli developed a passion for teaching and went on to graduate with a teaching degree in 1917.
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Albert Luthuli was confirmed in the Methodist church and later became a lay preacher.
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Albert Luthuli proved himself to be a good teacher and the Natal Department of Education offered him a bursary in 1920 to study for a Higher Teacher's Diploma at Adams College.
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Albert Luthuli refused, as he wanted to earn a salary to take care of his ageing mother, which led him to accept a teaching position at Adams College where he and Z K Matthews were one of the first African teachers at the school.
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Albert Luthuli was dedicated to bringing quality education to African children and led the Teachers' College at Adams College where he trained future teachers and travelled to different institutions to teach students.
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In 1928, Albert Luthuli was elected as secretary of the Natal Native Teachers' Association.
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Albert Luthuli served under the presidency of his friend and colleague at Adams College, Z K Matthews.
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Disillusioned with the lack of progress with the Natal Native Teachers' Association, Albert Luthuli refocused his efforts in 1935 by co-founding an auxiliary of the Teachers' Association, the Zulu Language and Cultural Society.
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Albert Luthuli described the purpose of the society as a means to preserve what is valuable to Zulu culture while removing the inappropriate practices and beliefs.
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Albert Luthuli's departure prevented him from having a direct role with the Society, and subsequently, the society's goals deviated from their original purpose.
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Albert Luthuli then founded the Natal and Zululand Bantu Cane Growers' Association, where he served as chairman.
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Albert Luthuli believed that whatever political role he was involved in, the stubbornness and hostility of the government undermined progress.
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In 1933, Albert Luthuli was asked to succeed his uncle, Martin, as chief of the Umvoti River Reserve.
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Albert Luthuli chose the option of chieftainship and claimed that money, fame, and power were not his goals.
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Albert Luthuli was elected Chief in 1935 and moved to Groutville at the end of the year.
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Albert Luthuli commenced his duties on January 1936 and would continue until he was deposed by the South African government in 1952.
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Albert Luthuli chose to govern with an inclusive democratic stance, which he believed Zulu traditional governance to be based upon.
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Albert Luthuli believed a chief should remain responsive to the desires of their people.
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The Hertzog Bills were introduced a year after Albert Luthuli was elected chief and were instrumental in the restriction and control of Africans.
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Albert Luthuli viewed the conditions of Groutville as a microcosm which affected all Africans in South Africa.
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In 1946, Albert Luthuli assumed the council duty in the Native Representative Council, an advisory body to the government.
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Albert Luthuli brought his long-standing complaints about the poor quality of African land to the NRC meetings.
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Albert Luthuli claimed that the government was deaf to African complaints in response to the growing segregationist measures.
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Albert Luthuli would later say that the NRC was a "toy telephone" requiring him to "shout a little louder" to no one, and African councilors then adjourned in protest.
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Albert Luthuli frequently addressed the criticism from his fellow black South Africans who believed that serving in the Native Representative Council would lead to nothing but talk, and that the NRC was a form of deceit served by the South African government.
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Albert Luthuli often agreed with these sentiments, but he and other contemporary African leaders believed that Africans should represent themselves in all structures created by the government, even if only to change them.
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Albert Luthuli was determined to take the demands and grievances of his people to the government.
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However, like others before him, Albert Luthuli realized that his efforts proved futile in the end.
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However, Albert Luthuli had no prior knowledge of this planned campaign and only found out about it as he was traveling to Bloemfontein, where the ANC's national conference was held.
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In December 1952, Albert Luthuli was elected president general of the ANC with the support of the ANC Youth League and African communists.
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Albert Luthuli was confined to small-population centres and private meetings for the rest of 1953.
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In mid-1954, following the expiration of his ban, Albert Luthuli was due to lead a protest in the Transvaal against the Western Areas Removals, a government scheme where close to 75,000 Africans were forced to move from Sophiatown and other townships.
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Albert Luthuli viewed the multiracial organization as a means to bring freedom to South Africa.
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Albert Luthuli admitted that the Charter had socialist clauses but denied that it reflected a Soviet Union-style of communism.
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Albert Luthuli was not able to attend the Congress of the People or the framing of the Freedom Charter due to a stroke and heart attack, as well as the banning order that restricted him to Groutville.
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Albert Luthuli was one of 156 leaders who were arrested on charges of high treason due to their opposition to apartheid and the Nationalist Party government.
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Albert Luthuli's influence was felt through his uniting leadership that contributed to the high morale of the accused.
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The impression that Albert Luthuli made on the foreigners who came to observe the trial led his name to be suggested for the Nobel Peace Prize.
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Albert Luthuli received a fine of 100 pounds and a sentence of six months in jail, which was suspended for three years on the condition that he was not convicted of a similar offense during that time frame.
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Albert Luthuli did not support an armed struggle as he believed the ANC members were ill-prepared without modern firearms and battlefield experience.
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In October 1961, under his third ban, Albert Luthuli was informed that he was awarded the 1960 Nobel Peace Prize for his fight against apartheid with nonviolent methods.
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In Groutville, journalists lined up to interview Albert Luthuli who dedicated the award to the ANC and expressed gratitude to his wife Nokukhanya.
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Albert Luthuli used his newfound status as a global podium and he pleaded to the UN and South Africa's trading partners to impose sanctions on Verwoerd's government.
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Albert Luthuli went on to speak of how the 'true patriots' of South Africa would not be satisfied until there were full democratic rights for everyone, equal opportunity, and the abolition of racial barriers.
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Norwegian newspaper Arbeiderbladet described the effect of Albert Luthuli's visit claiming: 'We have suddenly begun to feel Africa's nearness and greatness.
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The day after Albert Luthuli returned to South Africa from the award ceremony, uMkhonto we Sizwe launched their first operations on 16 December 1961.
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Volksblad argued the way Albert Luthuli had "grasped every opportunity to besmirch South Africa was shocking".
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In September 1962, King and Albert Luthuli had issued the Appeal For Action Against Apartheid organized by the American Committee on Africa, which boosted solidarity between the anti-apartheid and civil rights movements and urged Americans to protest apartheid through nonviolent measures such as boycotts.
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Albert Luthuli desired to meet Harrison after learning of his painting and its significance, and the Norwegian Embassy arranged a visit for Harrison to Albert Luthuli.
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Unlike the previous ban, the new ban prevented Albert Luthuli from traveling to the closest town of Stanger until 31 May 1969, had he not died before then.
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Vorster was confident that Albert Luthuli's activism furthered communism and issued a warning for him not to publish any statements, make contact with banned individuals, or speak at meetings.
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Albert Luthuli later flew by helicopter to Groutville to visit Luthuli where they discussed the anti-apartheid and civil rights movements.
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Albert Luthuli was already weak when I returned to Groutville [from the farms in Swaziland] in 1966.
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Albert Luthuli got depressed when something went wrong in the house.
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Albert Luthuli's feelings had run high because of the treatment he received from the police.
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From October 1964 to his death in July 1967, the only materials produced by Albert Luthuli's hand were sermon notes and medical reminders on scraps of paper.
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Newspaper articles published in 1967 claimed that Albert Luthuli was not able to do much reading or writing and he spent most of his time listening to the radio.
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The Sunday Times reported that Albert Luthuli had undergone surgery to his left eye, which had troubled him for many years and had been "useless" since Albert Luthuli's stroke in 1955.
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Albert Luthuli remained in the hospital for four weeks, and other health issues most likely prolonged his stay.
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On Friday 21 July 1967, Albert Luthuli left his house at 08:30 and informed his wife that he would be walking to his store near Gledhow train station.
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Albert Luthuli grew sugar cane half a mile away from the Umvoti River railway bridge, and since 06:30, two men and a woman were working in his field.
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Around 10:00, Albert Luthuli left his store and told his store employee that he was going to his field, and would return later.
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Forty minutes later Albert Luthuli crossed the river again to return to his store without having met with any of his field workers.
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Albert Luthuli said that [tomorrow] he wanted to go and see how the cane workers were progressing.
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The driver and the fireman left the train and attended to Albert Luthuli, who was still alive and breathing despite having received head injuries.
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Albert Luthuli was brought to Stanger Hospital at approximately 11:50, where the Senior Medical Superintendent described his condition as "semi-conscious" and "bleeding freely" due to injuries sustained to his head.
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At Stanger Hospital, Albert Luthuli's condition started to deteriorate despite treatment.
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Albert Luthuli found Luthuli in a coma not responding to stimulation.
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Sadly, Albert Luthuli had long since been considered obsolete by leaders of his own movement and he had little contact with those imprisoned, banned or exiled.
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