24 Facts About Amphetamine


Amphetamine is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), narcolepsy, and obesity.

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Amphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is equal parts of the two enantiomers in their pure amine forms.

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Amphetamine is used as an athletic performance enhancer and cognitive enhancer, and recreationally as an aphrodisiac and euphoriant.

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Amphetamine is used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, narcolepsy (a sleep disorder), and obesity, and is sometimes prescribed for its past medical indications, particularly for depression and chronic pain.

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Amphetamine is used by some athletes for its psychological and athletic performance-enhancing effects, such as increased endurance and alertness; however, non-medical amphetamine use is prohibited at sporting events that are regulated by collegiate, national, and international anti-doping agencies.

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Amphetamine improves endurance and reaction time primarily through reuptake inhibition and release of dopamine in the central nervous system.

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Amphetamine has been shown to pass into breast milk, so the IPCS and the USFDA advise mothers to avoid breastfeeding when using it.

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Amphetamine induces contraction in the urinary bladder sphincter, the muscle which controls urination, which can result in difficulty urinating.

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Amphetamine has a slight analgesic effect and can enhance the pain relieving effects of opioids.

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Amphetamine addiction is largely mediated through increased activation of dopamine receptors and NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens; magnesium ions inhibit NMDA receptors by blocking the receptor calcium channel.

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Amphetamine has been identified as a potent full agonist of trace amine-associated receptor 1, a and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) discovered in 2001, which is important for regulation of brain monoamines.

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Amphetamine is known to strongly induce cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript gene expression, a neuropeptide involved in feeding behavior, stress, and reward, which induces observable increases in neuronal development and survival in vitro.

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Amphetamine can enter the presynaptic neuron either through DAT or by diffusing across the neuronal membrane directly.

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Amphetamine is a substrate for the presynaptic vesicular monoamine transporter, VMAT2.

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Amphetamine affects serotonin via VMAT2 and, like norepinephrine, is thought to phosphorylate SERT via TAAR1.

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Amphetamine induces the selective release of histamine from mast cells and efflux from histaminergic neurons through VMAT2.

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Amphetamine is eliminated via the kidneys, with of the drug being excreted unchanged at normal urinary pH.

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Amphetamine has a very similar structure and function to the endogenous trace amines, which are naturally occurring neuromodulator molecules produced in the human body and brain.

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Amphetamine is a methyl homolog of the mammalian neurotransmitter phenethylamine with the chemical formula.

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Amphetamine is the parent compound of its own structural class, which includes a number of psychoactive derivatives.

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Amphetamine is frequently measured in urine or blood as part of a drug test for sports, employment, poisoning diagnostics, and forensics.

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Amphetamine was first synthesized in 1887 in Germany by Romanian chemist Lazar Edeleanu who named it phenylisopropylamine; its stimulant effects remained unknown until 1927, when it was independently resynthesized by Gordon Alles and reported to have sympathomimetic properties.

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Amphetamine had no medical use until late 1933, when Smith, Kline and French began selling it as an inhaler under the brand name Benzedrine as a decongestant.

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Amphetamine is still illegally synthesized today in clandestine labs and sold on the black market, primarily in European countries.

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