26 Facts About Antonie Pannekoek


Antonie Pannekoek was one of the main theorists of council communism.


Antonie Pannekoek published his first article, On the Necessity of Further Researches on the Milky Way, as a student.


Antonie Pannekoek briefly worked as a geodesist before he returned to the Leiden Observatory to work as an observer and write his thesis on the variability of Algol.


Soon Antonie Pannekoek became a well-known Marxist writer, writing for both Dutch and German socialist magazines, like Die Neue Zeit.


Antonie Pannekoek was offered the option to become a lecturer in historical materialism at the school funded by the Social Democratic Party of Germany.


Antonie Pannekoek soon ran into trouble with the German authorities, who threatened him with expulsion if he continued teaching.


Antonie Pannekoek remained in Berlin where he kept writing for journals and newspapers.

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Antonie Pannekoek was on holiday in the Netherlands when the First World War broke out.


Antonie Pannekoek began systematically observing the night sky and recording these observations while he was still in secondary school.


Antonie Pannekoek tracked the variability of Algol, which formed the foundation for his PhD thesis.


In 1898, Antonie Pannekoek published a series of articles in which he articulated how he thought the Milky Way should be observed.


Antonie Pannekoek published his own observations of the northern Milky Way in 1920 in the form of drawings, isophotic diagrams, and verbal descriptions.


Antonie Pannekoek combined his observations the independent observations of Cornelis Easton, Otto Boeddicker, and Julius Schmidt to create a composite image of the Milky Way, which he called the "mean subjective image".


Antonie Pannekoek developed a photographic method to represent the light distribution of the Milky Way.


The final decades of his professional career, Antonie Pannekoek mostly spend on researching the astrophysics of stellar atmospheres.


In 1935, Rupert Wildt showed that this was because Antonie Pannekoek had underestimated the impact of the H ion as a source of optical opacity.


In observational astrophysics, Antonie Pannekoek produced the curve of growth for Deneb in 1931, the first for a star other than the sun.


Antonie Pannekoek was part of scientific expeditions to observe solar eclipses in Java and Lapland.


Antonie Pannekoek was interested in the history of astronomy and his book, A History of Astronomy, is considered a standard reference on the subject.


Antonie Pannekoek became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1925.


Antonie Pannekoek was active in the Social Democratic Workers' Party, Social Democratic Party of Germany, Communist Party of the Netherlands, the Communist Workers' Party of the Netherlands and the Communist Workers' Party of Germany.


Antonie Pannekoek was best known for his writing on workers' councils.


Antonie Pannekoek regarded these as a new form of organisation capable of overcoming the limitations of the old institutions of the labour movement, the trade unions and social democratic parties.


Antonie Pannekoek was a sharp critic of anarchism, social democracy, and Vladimir Lenin and Leninism.


Antonie Pannekoek expressed misgivings about the authoritarian tendencies of Leninism, fearing for the socialist character of the Russian Revolution unless it should find a rectifying support in a proletarian revolution in the West.

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Antonie Pannekoek put his views forward in his 1938 book Lenin als Philosoph, originally published in German under the pseudonym J Harper.