62 Facts About Vladimir Lenin

1. Vladimir Lenin served as the first and founding head of government of Soviet Russia from 1917 to 1924 and of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1924.

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2. Vladimir Lenin moved to Saint Petersburg in 1893 and became a senior Marxist activist.

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3. Vladimir Lenin became an ideological figurehead behind Marxism–Leninism and a prominent influence over the international communist movement.

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4. In January 1886, when Vladimir Lenin was 15, his father died of a brain haemorrhage.

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5. Vladimir Lenin joined a revolutionary cell bent on assassinating the Tsar and was selected to construct a bomb.

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6. In September 1889, the Ulyanov family moved to the city of Samara, where Vladimir Lenin joined Alexei Sklyarenko's socialist discussion circle.

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7. Vladimir Lenin wrote a paper on peasant economics; it was rejected by the liberal journal Russian Thought.

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8. Vladimir Lenin began a romantic relationship with Nadezhda "Nadya" Krupskaya, a Marxist schoolteacher.

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9. Vladimir Lenin authored the political tract What the "Friends of the People" Are and How They Fight the Social-Democrats criticising the Narodnik agrarian-socialists, based largely on his experiences in Samara; around 200 copies were illegally printed in 1894.

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10. Vladimir Lenin proceeded to Paris to meet Marx's son-in-law Paul Lafargue and to research the Paris Commune of 1871, which he considered an early prototype for a proletarian government.

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11. In February 1897, Vladimir Lenin was sentenced without trial to three years' exile in eastern Siberia.

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12. Vladimir Lenin was granted a few days in Saint Petersburg to put his affairs in order and used this time to meet with the Social-Democrats, who had renamed themselves the League of Struggle for the Emancipation of the Working Class.

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13. Vladimir Lenin finished The Development of Capitalism in Russia, his longest book to date, which criticised the agrarian-socialists and promoted a Marxist analysis of Russian economic development.

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14. Vladimir Lenin fell ill with erysipelas and was unable to take such a leading role on the Iskra editorial board; in his absence, the board moved its base of operations to Geneva.

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15. Vladimir Lenin presented many of his ideas in the pamphlet Two Tactics of Social Democracy in the Democratic Revolution, published in August 1905.

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16. Recognising that membership fees and donations from a few wealthy sympathisers were insufficient to finance the Bolsheviks' activities, Vladimir Lenin endorsed the idea of robbing post offices, railway stations, trains, and banks.

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17. Vladimir Lenin was involved in setting up a Bolshevik Centre in Kuokkala, Grand Duchy of Finland, which was at the time a semi-autonomous part of the Russian Empire, before the Bolsheviks regained dominance of the RSDLP at its Fifth Congress, held in London in May 1907.

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18. Alexander Bogdanov and other prominent Bolsheviks decided to relocate the Bolshevik Centre to Paris; although Vladimir Lenin disagreed, he moved to the city in December 1908.

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19. Vladimir Lenin stayed in close contact with the RSDLP, which was operating in the Russian Empire, convincing the Duma's Bolshevik members to split from their parliamentary alliance with the Mensheviks.

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20. In January 1913, Stalin, whom Vladimir Lenin referred to as the "wonderful Georgian", visited him, and they discussed the future of non-Russian ethnic groups in the Empire.

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21. The war pitted the Russian Empire against the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and due to his Russian citizenship, Vladimir Lenin was arrested and briefly imprisoned until his anti-Tsarist credentials were explained.

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22. Vladimir Lenin was angry that the German Social-Democratic Party was supporting the German war effort, which was a direct contravention of the Second International's Stuttgart resolution that socialist parties would oppose the conflict, and saw the Second International as defunct.

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23. Vladimir Lenin attended the Zimmerwald Conference in September 1915 and the Kienthal Conference in April 1916, urging socialists across the continent to convert the "imperialist war" into a continent-wide "civil war" with the proletariat pitted against the bourgeoisie and aristocracy.

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24. Vladimir Lenin believed that competition and conflict would increase and that war between the imperialist powers would continue until they were overthrown by proletariat revolution and socialism established.

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25. When Vladimir Lenin learned of this from his base in Switzerland, he celebrated with other dissidents.

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26. Vladimir Lenin decided to return to Russia to take charge of the Bolsheviks but found that most passages into the country were blocked due to the ongoing conflict.

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27. Vladimir Lenin organised a plan with other dissidents to negotiate a passage for them through Germany, with whom Russia was then at war.

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28. Vladimir Lenin rejected repeated calls, including from some Bolsheviks, to establish a coalition government with other socialist parties.

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29. At their 7th Congress in March 1918, the Bolsheviks changed their official name from the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party to the Russian Communist Party, as Vladimir Lenin wanted to both distance his group from the increasingly reformist German Social Democratic Party and to emphasise its ultimate goal, that of a communist society.

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30. Vladimir Lenin was the most significant figure in this governance structure as well as being the Chairman of Sovnarkom and sitting on the Council of Labour and Defence, and on the Central Committee and Politburo of the Communist Party.

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31. Vladimir Lenin disliked Moscow, but rarely left the city centre during the rest of his life.

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32. In October 1917, Vladimir Lenin issued a decree limiting work for everyone in Russia to eight hours per day.

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33. Vladimir Lenin issued the Decree on Popular Education that stipulated that the government would guarantee free, secular education for all children in Russia, and a decree establishing a system of state orphanages.

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34. In November 1917, Vladimir Lenin issued the Decree on Workers' Control, which called on the workers of each enterprise to establish an elected committee to monitor their enterprise's management.

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35. That month they issued an order requisitioning the country's gold, and nationalised the banks, which Vladimir Lenin saw as a major step toward socialism.

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36. Vladimir Lenin proposed a three-month armistice in his Decree on Peace of November 1917, which was approved by the Second Congress of Soviets and presented to the German and Austro-Hungarian governments.

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37. Vladimir Lenin's published articles and speeches rarely called for executions, but he regularly did so in his coded telegrams and confidential notes.

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38. Vladimir Lenin expected Russia's aristocracy and bourgeoisie to oppose his government, but he believed that the numerical superiority of the lower classes, coupled with the Bolsheviks' ability to effectively organise them, guaranteed a swift victory in any conflict.

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39. Recognising their valuable military experience, Vladimir Lenin agreed that officers from the old Tsarist army could serve in the Red Army, although Trotsky established military councils to monitor their activities.

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40. Whether Vladimir Lenin sanctioned it or not, he still regarded it as necessary, highlighting the precedent set by the execution of Louis XVI in the French Revolution.

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41. Various senior Bolsheviks wanted these absorbed into the Russian state; Vladimir Lenin insisted that national sensibilities should be respected, but reassured his comrades that these nations' new Communist Party administrations were under the de facto authority of Sovnarkom.

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42. Vladimir Lenin saw this as a revival of the Second International, which he had despised, and formulated his own rival international socialist conference to offset its impact.

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43. Second Congress of the Communist International opened in Petrograd's Smolny Institute in July 1920, representing the last time that Vladimir Lenin visited a city other than Moscow.

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44. Vladimir Lenin's predicted world revolution did not materialise, as the Hungarian communist government was overthrown and the German Marxist uprisings suppressed.

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45. Vladimir Lenin deemed the unions to be superfluous in a "workers' state", but Lenin disagreed, believing it best to retain them; most Bolsheviks embraced Lenin's view in the 'trade union discussion'.

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46. In February 1921, Vladimir Lenin introduced a New Economic Policy to the Politburo; he convinced most senior Bolsheviks of its necessity and it passed into law in April.

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47. Vladimir Lenin termed this "state capitalism", and many Bolsheviks thought it to be a betrayal of socialist principles.

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48. Vladimir Lenin hoped that by allowing foreign corporations to invest in Russia, Sovnarkom would exacerbate rivalries between the capitalist nations and hasten their downfall; he tried to rent the oil fields of Kamchatka to an American corporation to heighten tensions between the US and Japan, who desired Kamchatka for their empire.

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49. Vladimir Lenin sent her to a sanatorium in Kislovodsk in the Northern Caucasus to recover, but she died there in September 1920 during a cholera epidemic.

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50. Vladimir Lenin was seriously ill by the latter half of 1921, experiencing hyperacusis, insomnia, and regular headaches.

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51. Vladimir Lenin was concerned by the survival of the Tsarist bureaucratic system in Soviet Russia, particularly during his final years.

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52. Vladimir Lenin recommended that Stalin be removed from the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party, deeming him ill-suited for the position.

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53. Vladimir Lenin defined socialism as "an order of civilized co-operators in which the means of production are socially owned", and believed that this economic system had to be expanded until it could create a society of abundance.

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54. Vladimir Lenin adapted his ideas according to changing circumstances, including the pragmatic realities of governing Russia amid war, famine, and economic collapse.

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55. Vladimir Lenin thought a proposition could be proved by quoting a text in Marx.

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56. Vladimir Lenin declared that "Soviet government is many millions of times more democratic than the most democratic-bourgeois republic", the latter of which was simply "a democracy for the rich.

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57. Vladimir Lenin was willing to use military force to ensure this unity, resulting in armed incursions into the independent states that formed in Ukraine, Georgia, Poland, Finland, and the Baltic states.

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58. Vladimir Lenin saw himself as a man of destiny and firmly believed in the righteousness of his cause and his own ability as a revolutionary leader.

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59. Vladimir Lenin refused to change his opinions, until he rejected them completely, after which he would treat the new view as if it was just as unchangeable.

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60. Busts or statues of Vladimir Lenin were erected in almost every village, and his face adorned postage stamps, crockery, posters, and the front pages of Soviet newspapers Pravda and Izvestia.

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61. The Order of Vladimir Lenin was established as one of the country's highest decorations.

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62. Under Stalin's regime, Vladimir Lenin was actively portrayed as a close friend of Stalin's who had supported Stalin's bid to be the next Soviet leader.

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