21 Facts About Arabic science


Medieval Islamic Arabic science had practical purposes as well as the goal of understanding.

FactSnippet No. 523,726

Islamic Arabic science survived the initial Christian reconquest of Spain, including the fall of Seville in 1248, as work continued in the eastern centres.

FactSnippet No. 523,727

Arabic science contributed to the Tables of Toledo, used by astronomers to predict the movements of the sun, moon and planets across the sky.

FactSnippet No. 523,728

Arabic science constructed a water clock in Toledo, discovered that the Sun's apogee moves slowly relative to the fixed stars, and obtained a good estimate of its motion for its rate of change.

FactSnippet No. 523,729

Arabic science developed trigonometry as a separate field, and compiled the most accurate astronomical tables available up to that time.

FactSnippet No. 523,730

Arabic science wrote the Tabula Rogeriana, a geographic study of the peoples, climates, resources and industries of the whole of the world known at that time.

FactSnippet No. 523,731

Arabic science made use of maps from Greece, Portugal, Muslim sources, and perhaps one made by Christopher Columbus.

FactSnippet No. 523,732

Arabic science represented a part of a major tradition of Ottoman cartography.

FactSnippet No. 523,733

Arabic science was the first to treat algebra as an independent discipline in its own right, and presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations.

FactSnippet No. 523,734

Arabic science has been credited with the invention of decimal fractions, and with a method like Horner's to calculate roots.

FactSnippet No. 523,735

Arabic science wrote a 23-volume compendium of Chinese, Indian, Persian, Syriac and Greek medicine.

FactSnippet No. 523,736

Arabic science challenged Galen's work on several fronts, including the treatment of bloodletting, arguing that it was effective.

FactSnippet No. 523,737

Arabic science wrote commentaries on Galen and on Avicenna's works.

FactSnippet No. 523,738

Arabic science used the law to produce the first Aspheric lenses that focused light without geometric aberrations.

FactSnippet No. 523,739

Arabic science suggested that light was reflected from different surfaces in different directions, thus causing objects to look different.

FactSnippet No. 523,740

Arabic science argued further that the mathematics of reflection and refraction needed to be consistent with the anatomy of the eye.

FactSnippet No. 523,741

Arabic science was an early proponent of the scientific method, the concept that a hypothesis must be proved by experiments based on confirmable procedures or mathematical evidence, five centuries before Renaissance scientists.

FactSnippet No. 523,742

Arabic science distinguished between sodium carbonate and potassium carbonate, and drew attention to the poisonous nature of copper compounds, especially copper vitriol, and of lead compounds.

FactSnippet No. 523,743

Arabic science devoted a whole volume to simples in The Canon of Medicine.

FactSnippet No. 523,744

Arabic science argued instead that an object acquires an inclination to move when it has a motive power impressed on it.

FactSnippet No. 523,745

Arabic science claimed that a projectile in a vacuum would not stop unless it is acted upon.

FactSnippet No. 523,746