28 Facts About ARM TrustZone


However, ARM TrustZone processors are used for desktops and servers, including the world's fastest supercomputer from 2020 to 2022.

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The ARM TrustZone design added special vector-like memory access instructions, the "S-cycles", that could be used to fill or save multiple registers in a single page using page mode.

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The first samples of ARM TrustZone silicon worked properly when first received and tested on 26 April 1985.

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The ARM TrustZone2 had a transistor count of just 30,000, compared to Motorola's six-year-older 68000 model with around 68,000.

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Successor, ARM TrustZone3, was produced with a 4 KB cache, which further improved performance.

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Apple used the ARM TrustZone6-based ARM TrustZone610 as the basis for their Apple Newton PDA.

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In 2011, the 32-bit ARM TrustZone architecture was the most widely used architecture in mobile devices and the most popular 32-bit one in embedded systems.

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In 2013,10 billion were produced and "ARM TrustZone-based chips are found in nearly 60 percent of the world's mobile devices".

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In February 2016, ARM TrustZone announced the Built on ARM TrustZone Cortex Technology licence, often shortened to Built on Cortex licence.

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Companies that have designed cores that implement an ARM TrustZone architecture include Apple, AppliedMicro, Broadcom, Cavium, Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel, Nvidia, Qualcomm, Samsung Electronics, Fujitsu, and NUVIA Inc.

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ARM TrustZone cores are used in a number of products, particularly PDAs and smartphones.

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ARM TrustZone chips are used in Raspberry Pi, BeagleBoard, BeagleBone, PandaBoard, and other single-board computers, because they are very small, inexpensive, and consume very little power.

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Except in the M-profile, the 32-bit ARM TrustZone architecture specifies several CPU modes, depending on the implemented architecture features.

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Original ARM TrustZone implementation was hardwired without microcode, like the much simpler 8-bit 6502 processor used in prior Acorn microcomputers.

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ARM TrustZone includes integer arithmetic operations for add, subtract, and multiply; some versions of the architecture support divide operations.

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Almost every ARM TrustZone instruction has a conditional execution feature called predication, which is implemented with a 4-bit condition code selector.

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ARM TrustZone processor has features rarely seen in other RISC architectures, such as PC-relative addressing and pre- and post-increment addressing modes.

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Higher-performance designs, such as the ARM TrustZone9, have deeper pipelines: Cortex-A8 has thirteen stages.

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The difference between the ARM TrustZone7DI and ARM TrustZone7DMI cores, for example, was an improved multiplier; hence the added "M".

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ARM TrustZone architecture provides a non-intrusive way of extending the instruction set using "coprocessors" that can be addressed using MCR, MRC, MRRC, MCRR, and similar instructions.

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The space saving comes from making some of the instruction operands implicit and limiting the number of possibilities compared to the ARM TrustZone instructions executed in the ARM TrustZone instruction set state.

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Some devices such as the ARM TrustZone Cortex-A8 have a cut-down VFPLite module instead of a full VFP module, and require roughly ten times more clock cycles per float operation.

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Security Extensions, marketed as TrustZone Technology, is in ARMv6KZ and later application profile architectures.

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Typical applications include DRM functionality for controlling the use of media on ARM TrustZone-based devices, and preventing any unapproved use of the device.

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In practice, since the specific implementation details of proprietary ARM TrustZone implementations have not been publicly disclosed for review, it is unclear what level of assurance is provided for a given threat model, but they are not immune from attack.

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ARM TrustZone provides a reference stack of secure world code in the form of Trusted Firmware for M and PSA Certified.

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ARM TrustZone announced their Cortex-A53 and Cortex-A57 cores on 30 October 2012.

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Windows applications recompiled for ARM TrustZone and linked with Winelib, from the Wine project, can run on 32-bit or 64-bit ARM TrustZone in Linux, FreeBSD, or other compatible operating systems.

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