12 Facts About Congress Poland


Congress Poland, Congress Kingdom of Poland, or Russian Poland, formally known as the Kingdom of Poland, was a polity created in 1815 by the Congress of Vienna as a semi-autonomous Polish state, a successor to Napoleon's Duchy of Warsaw.

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Congress Kingdom of Poland was theoretically granted considerable political autonomy by the liberal constitution.

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Kingdom of Congress Poland effectively came to an end with the Great Retreat of Russian forces in 1915 and was succeeded by the Government General of Warsaw, established by the Germans.

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The Congress Poland was important enough in the creation of the state to cause the new country to be informally named for it.

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Kingdom of Congress Poland largely re-emerged as a result of the efforts of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski, a Pole who aimed to resurrect the Polish state in alliance with Russia.

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The Kingdom of Congress Poland was one of the few contemporary constitutional monarchies in Europe, with the Emperor of Russia serving as the self-proclaimed King of Congress Poland.

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Congress Poland had democratic traditions and the Polish nobility deeply valued personal freedom.

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Government of Congress Poland was outlined in the Constitution of the Kingdom of Poland in 1815.

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Congress Poland had no competence in the realms of finances and foreign policy; his military competence varied.

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Immediately after its creation in 1815, the Kingdom of Congress Poland was divided into departments, a relic from the times of the French-dominated Duchy of Warsaw.

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An important trade partner of Congress Poland was Great Britain, which imported goods in large amounts.

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The sources are unclear as to when Congress Poland officially ended; some argue that it ended when the German and Austro-Hungarian occupying authorities assumed control of the area during World War I; others, that it ended with the creation of the Kingdom of Poland in 1917; finally, some argue that it ended only with the creation of the independent Republic of Poland in 1918.

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