57 Facts About Russia


Russia extends across eleven time zones and borders sixteen sovereign nations, more than any other country in the world.

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Name Russia is derived from Rus', a medieval state populated primarily by the East Slavs However, the proper name became more prominent in later history, and the country typically was called by its inhabitants "Rus land".

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Russia was home to some of the last surviving Neanderthals, from about 45, 000 years ago, found in Mezmaiskaya cave.

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Russia continued its territorial growth through the 17th century, which was the age of the Cossacks.

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Under Peter the Great, Russia was proclaimed an empire in 1721, and established itself as one of the European great powers.

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Russia steeply escalated the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War by launching a full-scale invasion of Ukraine on 24 February 2022.

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Russia is second only to Brazil by total renewable water resources.

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The Volga in western Russia, widely regarded as Russia's national river, is the longest river in Europe; and forms the Volga Delta, the largest river delta in the continent.

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Climate change in Russia is causing more frequent wildfires, and thawing the country's large expanse of permafrost.

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Russia, owing to its gigantic size, has diverse ecosystems, including polar deserts, tundra, forest tundra, taiga, mixed and broadleaf forest, forest steppe, steppe, semi-desert, and subtropics.

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About half of Russia's territory is forested, and it has the world's largest forest reserves, which sequester some of the world's highest amounts of carbon dioxide.

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Russia still has many ecosystems which are still untouched by man; mainly in the northern taiga areas, and the subarctic tundra of Siberia.

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Russia had a Forest Landscape Integrity Index mean score of 9.

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Russia, by constitution, is an asymmetric federal republic, with a semi-presidential system, wherein the president is the head of state, and the prime minister is the head of government.

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Under the administrations of Vladimir Putin, Russia has experienced democratic backsliding, and has become an authoritarian state under a dictatorship, with Putin's policies being referred to as Putinism.

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The federal districts of Russia were established by Putin in 2000 to facilitate central government control of the federal subjects.

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Russia is one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council.

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Russia is a member of the G20, the OSCE, and the APEC.

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Russia takes a leading role in organisations such as the CIS, the EAEU, the CSTO, the SCO, and BRICS.

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Russia maintains close relations with neighbouring Belarus, which is a part of the Union State, a supranational confederation of the two states.

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Russia wields enormous influence across the geopolitically important South Caucasus and Central Asia; and the two regions have been described as Russia's "backyard".

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Russia maintains cordial relations with Iran, as it is a strategic and economic ally.

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Russia has increasingly pushed to expand its influence across the Arctic, Asia-Pacific, Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America.

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Russia is among the five recognised nuclear-weapons states, with the world's largest stockpile of nuclear weapons; over half of the world's nuclear weapons are owned by Russia.

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Russia possesses the second-largest fleet of ballistic missile submarines, and is one of the only three countries operating strategic bombers.

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Human rights in Russia have been increasingly criticised by leading democracy and human rights groups.

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In particular, Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch say that Russia is not democratic and allows few political rights and civil liberties to its citizens.

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In regards to media freedom, Russia was ranked 155th out of 180 countries in Reporters Without Borders' Press Freedom Index for 2022.

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Russia has a long history of corruption, which is seen as a significant problem.

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Russia has a mixed economy, with enormous natural resources, particularly oil and natural gas.

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Russia is the world's thirteenth-largest exporter and the 21st-largest importer.

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Russia has one of the lowest levels of external debt among major economies, although its inequality of household income and wealth is one of the highest among developed countries.

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Russia is the world's leading natural gas exporter, the second-largest natural gas producer, and the second-largest oil producer and exporter.

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Russia is committed to the Paris Agreement, after joining the pact formally in 2019.

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Russia is the world's fourth-largest electricity producer, and the ninth-largest renewable energy producer in 2019.

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Russia was the world's fourth-largest nuclear energy producer in 2019, and was the fifth-largest hydroelectric producer in 2021.

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Russia is the world's largest exporter of wheat, the largest producer of barley and buckwheat, among the largest exporters of maize and sunflower oil, and the leading producer of fertilizer.

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Russia ranked 45th in the Global Innovation Index in 2021.

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Russia had 172 active satellites in space in April 2022, the world's third-highest.

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Russia's most visited and popular landmarks include Red Square, the Peterhof Palace, the Kazan Kremlin, the Trinity Lavra of St Sergius and Lake Baikal.

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Russia is one of the world's most sparsely populated and urbanised countries, with the vast majority of its population concentrated within its western part.

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Russia is the most populous country in Europe, and the world's ninth most populous country, with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre.

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In 2009, it recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and since the 2010s, Russia has seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.

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However, since 2020, due to excessive deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in history.

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Russia is a multinational state with many subnational entities associated with different minorities.

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Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and is the traditional religion among the majority of the peoples of the North Caucasus, and among some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.

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Some religious minorities have faced oppression and some have been banned in the country; notably, in 2017 the Jehovah's Witnesses were outlawed in Russia, facing persecution ever since, after having been declared an "extremist" and "nontraditional" faith.

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The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.

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Russia is among the world's most educated countries, and has the sixth-highest proportion of tertiary-level graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 62.

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The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.

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Russia was the world's fifth-leading destination for international students in 2019, hosting roughly 300 thousand.

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Russia is home to 30 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, 19 out of which are cultural; while 27 more sites lie on the tentative list.

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Until the 18th-century, music in Russia consisted mainly of church music and folk songs and dances.

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State-run Channel One and Russia-1 are the leading news channels, while RT is the flagship of Russia's international media operations.

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Russia has the largest video gaming market in Europe, with over 65 million players nationwide.

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Russia was the host nation for the 2017 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the 2018 FIFA World Cup.

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However, Russia has had 43 Olympic medals stripped from its athletes due to doping violations, which is the most of any country, and nearly a third of the global total.

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