19 Facts About Arctic


Arctic is a polar region located at the northernmost part of Earth.

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Land within the Arctic region has seasonally varying snow and ice cover, with predominantly treeless permafrost containing tundra.

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Life in the Arctic includes zooplankton and phytoplankton, fish and marine mammals, birds, land animals, plants and human societies.

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Coastal Arctic climates are moderated by oceanic influences, having generally warmer temperatures and heavier snowfalls than the colder and drier interior areas.

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Arctic life is characterized by adaptation to short growing seasons with long periods of sunlight, and cold, dark, snow-covered winter conditions.

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Arctic vegetation is composed of plants such as dwarf shrubs, graminoids, herbs, lichens, and mosses, which all grow relatively close to the ground, forming tundra.

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Arctic includes copious natural resources to which modern technology and the economic opening up of Russia have given significant new opportunities.

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Arctic contains some of the last and most extensive continuous wilderness areas in the world, and its significance in preserving biodiversity and genotypes is considerable.

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The Arctic is particularly susceptible to the abrasion of groundcover and to the disturbance of the rare breeding grounds of the animals that are characteristic to the region.

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Eight Arctic nations are all members of the Arctic Council, as are organizations representing six indigenous populations.

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Arctic shipping is subject to some regulatory control through the International Code for Ships Operating in Polar Waters, adopted by the International Maritime Organization on 1 January 2017 and applies to all ships in Arctic waters over 500 tonnes.

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Research in the Arctic has long been a collaborative international effort, evidenced by the International Polar Year.

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Since 1937, the larger portion of the Asian-side Arctic region has been extensively explored by Soviet and Russian crewed drifting ice stations.

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Arctic is comparatively clean, although there are certain ecologically difficult localized pollution problems that present a serious threat to people's health living around these pollution sources.

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Arctic has climate change rates that are amongst the highest in the world.

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Effects of global warming in the Arctic include rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, and melting of the Greenland ice sheet.

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Arctic is especially vulnerable to the effects of any climate change, as has become apparent with the reduction of sea ice in recent years.

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Current Arctic warming is leading to ancient carbon being released from thawing permafrost, leading to methane and carbon dioxide production by micro-organisms.

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One harbinger of the opening navigability of the Arctic took place in the summer of 2016 when the Crystal Serenity successfully navigated the Northwest Passage, a first for a large cruise ship.

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