34 Facts About East Jerusalem


East Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was held by Jordan during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as opposed to the western sector of the city, West Jerusalem, which was held by Israel.

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East Jerusalem was envisaged as a separate, international city under the 1947 United Nations partition plan.

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Palestinians and many in the international community consider East Jerusalem to be the future capital of the State of Palestine.

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The status of East Jerusalem has been described as "one of the most intractable issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict", with conflicting claims to sovereignty over the city or parts of it, and access to its holy sites.

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Arab residents of East Jerusalem are increasingly becoming integrated into Israeli society, in terms of education, citizenship, national service and in other aspects.

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The Jewish presence in eastern Jerusalem was concentrated to the Old Quarter, with a scattering present in Silwan and Sheikh Jarrah.

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East Jerusalem was to be an international city under the 1947 UN Partition Plan.

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The United States, while approving the unification, withheld making any public statement and likewise affirmed that since the issue of Jerusalem was sub judice, it did not recognize either the Israeli annexation of West Jerusalem, nor the Jordanian annexation of the eastern area of the city.

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East Jerusalem stipulated that to go ahead, all involved denominations would have to approve the plan, which would have given the Catholic Church a primacy of authority over the others.

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Eastern Jerusalem suffered an outflow of population, partially accounted for by merchants and administrators moving to Amman.

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Shortly after the Israeli takeover, East Jerusalem was absorbed into West Jerusalem, together with several neighboring West Bank villages.

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When occupied by Israel after the 1967 Six-Day War, East Jerusalem, with expanded borders, came under direct Israeli rule, an effective de facto annexation.

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Since that time Israel has shut down all offices and NGO organisations connected to the PLO in East Jerusalem, saying that the Oslo Accords do not permit the Palestinian National Authority to operate in Jerusalem.

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On 28 June 1967 Israel extended Israeli "law, jurisdiction and administration" to the area of East Jerusalem, without naming it, by incorporating it into its municipality of West Jerusalem.

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East Jerusalem therefore ordered the deputy military governor, Ya'akov Salman, to depose the council.

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In March 2009, a confidential "EU Heads of Mission Report on East Jerusalem" was published, in which the Israeli government was accused of "actively pursuing the illegal annexation" of East Jerusalem.

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East Jerusalem has been occupied by Israel since 1967 and has been effectively annexed, in an act internationally condemned, by Israel in 1980.

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Israel has never formally annexed East Jerusalem, nor claimed sovereignty there but its extension of Israeli law and administration there in 1967, and the East Jerusalem Basic Law of 1980 are often taken as constituting an effective or de facto annexation.

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The Israeli Supreme Court recognized that East Jerusalem had become an integral part of the State of Israel, ruling that even if Knesset laws contravene international law, the court is bound by domestic law and therefore considers the area annexed.

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Israel's settlement policy in East Jerusalem has been described by Avi Shlaim and others as one aiming to preempt negotiations by creating facts on the ground.

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That same year, the United States Congress unanimously adopted the Senate's Concurrent Resolution 106, affirming its belief that East Jerusalem must remain an undivided city with the Senate Concurrent Resolution 113 of 1992.

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Nevertheless, the subsequent Clinton Administration refused to characterise East Jerusalem as being under occupation and viewed it as a territory over which sovereignty was undefined.

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East Jerusalem has been designed to become an Israeli Jewish city surrounding numerous small enclaves, under military control, for the Palestinian residents.

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Many have left Jerusalem in search of work abroad, as, in the aftermath of the Second Intifada, East Jerusalem has increasingly been cut off from the West Bank and thereby has lost its main economic hub.

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Jewish neighbourhoods in East Jerusalem have 30 times the number of playgrounds that Palestinian areas have.

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East Jerusalem Palestinians are permitted to apply for Israeli citizenship, provided they meet the requirements for naturalization—such as swearing allegiance to Israel and renouncing all other citizenships—which most of them refuse to do.

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Residents pay taxes, and following a 1988 Israeli Supreme Court ruling, East Jerusalem residents are guaranteed the right to social security benefits and state health care.

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In March 2000, the Minister of the Interior, Natan Sharansky, stated that the "quiet deportation" policy would cease, the prior policy would be restored, and Arab natives to Jerusalem would be able to regain residency if they could prove that they have visited Israel at least once every three years.

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East Jerusalem residents are increasingly becoming integrated into Israeli society.

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Until 1998, residents of East Jerusalem were disadvantaged in terms of healthcare service and providers.

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The health quality indices in East Jerusalem increased from a grade of 74 in 2009 to 87 in 2012, which is the same quality grade the clinics in West Jerusalem received.

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East Jerusalem was designated the Arab Capital of Culture in 2009.

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The Palestinians' governor of East Jerusalem said "some relaxation of the political situation" was required for the economy to improve.

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East Jerusalem has a shortage of schools for Palestinian children.

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