Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak was an Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the fourth president of Egypt from 1981 to 2011.
70 Facts About Hosni Mubarak
Hosni Mubarak served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air chief marshal in 1973.
Hosni Mubarak's presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypt's longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country for 43 years from 1805 to 1848.
Less than two weeks after the assassination of President Anwar Sadat, Hosni Mubarak quickly assumed the presidency in the single-candidate 1981 referendum, and renewed his term through single-candidate referendums in 1987,1993, and 1999.
Under United States pressure, Hosni Mubarak held the country's first multi-party election in 2005, which he won.
Hosni Mubarak stepped down during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 after 18 days of demonstrations.
Hosni Mubarak was then ordered to stand trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution.
Hosni Mubarak was detained in a military hospital while his sons were freed on 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court.
Hosni Mubarak was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by the Court of Cassation and was released on 24 March 2017.
Hosni Mubarak was honoured with a state funeral and buried at a family plot outside Cairo.
Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, Egypt.
Hosni Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units; he spent two years in a Spitfire fighter squadron.
From February 1959 to June 1961, Hosni Mubarak undertook further training in the Soviet Union, attending a Soviet pilot training school in Moscow and another at Kant Air Base near Bishkek in the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic.
Hosni Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers.
In November 1967, Hosni Mubarak became the Air Force Academy's commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots and navigators during the pre-October War years.
In 1972, Hosni Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense.
Hosni Mubarak was credited in some publications for Egypt's initial strong performance in the war.
However Hosni Mubarak's influence was disputed by Shahdan El-Shazli, the daughter of the former Egyptian military Chief of Staff Saad el-Shazly.
Hosni Mubarak said Mubarak exaggerated his role in the 1973 war.
Hosni Mubarak said photographs pertaining to the discussions in the military command room were altered and Saad El-Shazli was erased and replaced with Mubarak.
In September 1975, Hosni Mubarak went on a mission to Riyadh and Damascus to persuade the Saudi Arabian and Syrian governments to accept the disengagement agreement signed with the Israeli government, but was refused a meeting by the Syrian President Hafez Al-Assad.
Hosni Mubarak developed friendships with several other important Arab leaders, including Saudi Foreign Minister Prince Saud, Oman's Sultan Qaboos, Morocco's King Hassan II, and Sudan's President Jaafar Nimeiry.
Fahmy told Eilts that "Hosni Mubarak is, for the time being at least, likely to be a regular participant in all sensitive meetings" and he advised the ambassador not to antagonize Hosni Mubarak because he was Sadat's personal choice.
Hosni Mubarak was injured during the assassination of President Sadat in October 1981 by soldiers led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli.
In June 1982, Hosni Mubarak met King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, which marked a beginning of an Egyptian-Saudi rapprochement.
In December 1983, Hosni Mubarak welcomed Yasser Arafat of the PLO to a summit in Cairo, marking a rapprochement with the PLO, and from that time, Egypt became the PLO's main ally.
Karsh accused Hosni Mubarak of being personally antisemitic, writing he "evidently shared the premises" of his propaganda.
Hosni Mubarak quietly improved relations with the former Soviet Union.
In 1987, Hosni Mubarak won an election to a second six-year term.
The state remained large under Hosni Mubarak employing 8 million people out of a population of 75 million.
In June 1995, there was an alleged assassination attempt involving noxious gases and Egyptian Islamic Jihad while Hosni Mubarak was in Ethiopia for a conference of the Organization of African Unity.
Hosni Mubarak was reportedly injured by a knife-wielding assailant in Port Said in September 1999.
Hosni Mubarak said the war would cause "100 Bin Ladens".
President Hosni Mubarak was re-elected by majority votes in a referendum for successive terms on four occasions in 1987,1993, and 1999.
Each time, Hosni Mubarak secured his position by having himself nominated by Parliament then confirmed without opposition in a referendum.
In 2005 Freedom House, a non-governmental organization that conducts research into democracy, reported that the Egyptian government under Hosni Mubarak expanded bureaucratic regulations, registration requirements, and other controls that often feed corruption.
Freedom House said, "corruption remained a significant problem under Hosni Mubarak, who promised to do much, but in fact never did anything significant to tackle it effectively".
The National Democratic Party of Egypt continued to state that Hosni Mubarak was to be the party's only candidate in the 2011 Presidential Election.
Hosni Mubarak said on 1 February 2011 that he had no intention of standing in the 2011 presidential election.
In October 2000, Hosni Mubarak hosted an emergency summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheikh to discuss the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Hosni Mubarak was involved in the Arab League, supporting Arab efforts to achieve a lasting peace in the region.
In 2006, Hosni Mubarak condemned the Israeli military attack in Lebanon, but indirectly criticised Hezbollah for harming Arab interests.
In June 2007, Hosni Mubarak held a summit meeting at Sharm el-Sheik with King Abdullah II of Jordan, President Mahmoud Abbas and Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
In 2009, Hosni Mubarak's government banned the Cairo Anti-war Conference, which had criticised his lack of action against Israel.
Hosni Mubarak stated in a speech that he would not leave, and would die on Egyptian soil.
Hosni Mubarak's health was speculated to be rapidly deteriorating; some reports said he was in a coma.
Gamal and Alaa were jailed in Tora Prison; state television reported that Hosni Mubarak was in police custody in a hospital near his residence following a heart attack.
On 24 May 2011, Hosni Mubarak was ordered to stand trial on charges of premeditated murder of peaceful protesters during the revolution and, if convicted, could face the death penalty.
The decision to try Hosni Mubarak was made days before a scheduled protest in Tahrir Square.
Hosni Mubarak was taken into the court on a hospital bed and held in a cage for the session.
Judge Ahmed Refaat adjourned the court, ruling that Hosni Mubarak be transferred under continued arrest to the military hospital on the outskirts of Cairo.
On 2 June 2012, Hosni Mubarak was found guilty of not halting the killing of protesters by the Egyptian security forces; he was sentenced to life imprisonment.
All other charges against Hosni Mubarak, including profiteering and economic fraud, were dismissed.
Hosni Mubarak remained in custody and returned to court on 11 May 2013 for a retrial on charges of complicity in the murder of protesters.
Hosni Mubarak expressed great admiration and gratitude towards the late Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan of the United Arab Emirates and his children, for their continuous support of Egypt and its people.
However, Hosni Mubarak expressed his dislike of opposition politician Hamdeen Sabbahi, a Nasserist following the policies of Gamal Abdel Nasser.
In July 2010, the media said Egypt was about to undergo dramatic change because Hosni Mubarak was thought to have cancer and because of the scheduled 2011 presidential election.
Hosni Mubarak was reportedly depressed, refused to take medications, and was slipping in and out of consciousness.
The source denied that Hosni Mubarak was writing his memoirs, stating that he was almost completely unconscious.
Hosni Mubarak had undergone surgery for the condition in Germany in 2010 and suffered from circulatory problems with an irregular heart beat.
On 13 July 2011, unconfirmed reports stated that Hosni Mubarak had slipped into a coma at his residence after giving his final speech, and on 17 July, el-Deeb confirmed the reports.
On 26 July 2011, Hosni Mubarak was reported to be depressed and refusing solid food while in hospital being treated for a heart condition and in custody awaiting trial.
On 20 June 2012, as Hosni Mubarak's condition continued to decline, state-run media erroneously reported that the former president had been declared "clinically dead", causing widespread confusion.
On 27 December 2012, Hosni Mubarak was taken from Tora Prison to the Cairo military hospital after falling and breaking a rib.
On 19 June 2014, Hosni Mubarak slipped in the bathroom at the military hospital in Cairo where he was being held and broke his left leg, fracturing his left thighbone, requiring surgery.
Hosni Mubarak was serving a three-year sentence for corruption, and awaiting retrial regarding the killing of protesters during his regime.
However, Hosni Mubarak had remained at the military hospital since January 2014 due to his ongoing health issues.
On 2 March 2017, the Court of Cassation, Egypt's top appeals court, acquitted Hosni Mubarak of conspiring in the killing of protesters during the 2011 uprising.
Hosni Mubarak died on 25 February 2020, in a Cairo military hospital, at the age of 91.
Hosni Mubarak was married to Suzanne Mubarak and together they had two sons: Alaa and Gamal.