Martin Bucer was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.
81 Facts About Martin Bucer
Martin Bucer then began to work for the Reformation, with the support of Franz von Sickingen.
Later, Martin Bucer sought agreement on common articles of faith such as the Tetrapolitan Confession and the Wittenberg Concord, working closely with Philipp Melanchthon on the latter.
Martin Bucer believed that the Catholics in the Holy Roman Empire could be convinced to join the Reformation.
Martin Bucer did not achieve this, as political events led to the Schmalkaldic War and the retreat of Protestantism within the Empire.
In 1548, Martin Bucer was persuaded, under duress, to sign the Augsburg Interim, which imposed certain forms of Catholic worship.
In 1549, Martin Bucer was exiled to England, where, under the guidance of Thomas Cranmer, he was able to influence both Edwardine Ordinals and the second revision of the Book of Common Prayer.
Martin Bucer died in Cambridge, England, at the age of 59.
Martin Bucer is remembered as an early pioneer of ecumenism.
Martin Bucer was born in Selestat, Alsace, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire.
Martin Bucer likely attended Selestat's prestigious Latin school, where artisans sent their children.
Martin Bucer completed his studies in the summer of 1507 and joined the Dominican Order as a novice.
Martin Bucer later claimed his grandfather had forced him into the order.
Martin Bucer largely agreed with them and perceived the ideas of Luther and Erasmus to be in concordance.
Martin Bucer wrote his will, which contains the inventory of his books.
In early 1519, Martin Bucer received the baccalaureus degree, and that summer he stated his theological views in a disputation before the faculty at Heidelberg, revealing his break with Aquinas and scholasticism.
The events that caused Martin Bucer to leave the Dominican Order arose from his embrace of new ideas and his growing contact with other humanists and reformers.
Martin Bucer worked for a time at the court of Ludwig V, Elector Palatine, as chaplain to Ludwig's younger brother Frederick.
On his way, Martin Bucer stopped in the town of Wissembourg, whose leading reformer, Heinrich Motherer, asked him to become his chaplain.
Martin Bucer agreed to interrupt his journey and went to work immediately, preaching daily sermons in which he attacked traditional church practices and monastic orders.
Martin Bucer accused the monks of creating additional rules above what is contained in the Bible.
Martin Bucer summarised his convictions in six theses, and called for a public disputation.
Martin Bucer's leading benefactor, Franz von Sickingen, was defeated and killed during the Knights' Revolt, and Ulrich von Hutten became a fugitive.
Martin Bucer, excommunicated and without means of subsistence, was in a precarious situation when he arrived in Strasbourg.
In Strasbourg, Martin Bucer joined a team of notable reformers: Zell, who took the role of the preacher to the masses; Wolfgang Capito, the most influential theologian in the city; and Caspar Hedio, the cathedral preacher.
Martin Bucer rejected the Mass and Catholic concepts such as monastic vows, veneration of saints, and purgatory.
Martin Bucer refused to recognise the authority of the pope and instead emphasised obedience to the government.
Martin Bucer proposed a formula that he hoped would satisfy both sides: different understandings of scripture were acceptable, and church unity was assured so long as both sides had a "child-like faith in God".
Martin Bucer stated that his and Zwingli's interpretation on the eucharist was the correct one, but while he considered the Wittenberg theologians to be in error, he accepted them as brethren as they agreed on the fundamentals of faith.
Martin Bucer published two translations of works by Luther and Johannes Bugenhagen, interpolating his own interpretation of the Lord's Supper into the text.
Martin Bucer noted that as Luther had rejected impanation, the idea that Christ was "made into bread", there was no disagreement between Luther and Zwingli; both believed in a spiritual presence of Christ in the eucharist.
Martin Bucer did not hesitate to disagree with Zwingli on occasion, although unity between Strasbourg and the Swiss churches took priority over such differences.
Martin Bucer provided strong support for Zwingli's leading role in the disputation, which finally brought the Reformation to Bern.
Martin Bucer then traveled to several southern German cities, including Ulm, Isny, Konstanz, Memmingen, and Lindau, and to the Swiss cities of Basel and Zurich.
For Martin Bucer to recommend the rival confession over his own version surprised the Swiss cities.
Martin Bucer had at first tolerated images in places of worship as long as they were not venerated.
Martin Bucer later came to believe they should be removed because of their potential for abuse, and he advocated in a treatise for their orderly removal.
Martin Bucer's concerns were motivated by the effects of a rapidly rising refugee population, attracted by Strasbourg's tolerant asylum policies.
Martin Bucer personally took responsibility for attacking these and other popular preachers to minimize their influence and secure their expulsion and that of their followers.
Martin Bucer insisted that the council urgently take control of all Christian worship in the city for the common good.
Martin Bucer repeatedly led initiatives to secure doctrinal agreement between Wittenberg, the south German cities, and Switzerland.
Martin Bucer persuaded the south Germans to attend, but the Swiss, led by Zwingli's successor Heinrich Bullinger, were skeptical of his intentions.
Capito intervened to calm matters, and Martin Bucer claimed that Luther had misunderstood their views on the issue.
Strasbourg quickly endorsed the document, but much coaxing from Martin Bucer was required before he managed to convince all the south German cities.
Martin Bucer advised the Swiss to hold a national synod to decide on the matter, hoping he could at least persuade Bern and Basel.
The extent to which Martin Bucer influenced Calvin is an open question among modern scholars, but many of the reforms that Calvin later implemented in Geneva, including the liturgy and the church organisation, were originally developed in Strasbourg.
When Philip of Hesse's law on the protection of the Jews in his territory expired in 1538, he commissioned Martin Bucer to create a new policy.
Martin Bucer rejected the favourable conditions and recommended that Jews be prohibited from all trades except those providing minimum subsistence.
Martin Bucer's Judenratschlag included his first use of negative stereotypes of the Jews.
Martin Bucer allowed the Jews to engage in trade and commerce but included strict rules on their association with Christians.
Martin Bucer reluctantly agreed, on condition the marriage be kept secret.
Martin Bucer consulted Luther and Melanchthon, and the three reformers presented Philip with a statement of advice ; later, Martin Bucer produced his own arguments for and against bigamy.
When rumours of the marriage spread, Luther told Philip to deny it, while Martin Bucer advised him to hide his second wife and conceal the truth.
Martin Bucer made no doctrinal concessions: he remained silent on critical matters such as the mass and the papacy.
Martin Bucer placed great hopes on this meeting: he believed it would be possible to convince most German Catholics to accept the doctrine of sola fide as the basis for discussions on all other issues.
Martin Bucer then began working with Johannes Gropper, a delegate of the archbishop of Cologne, Hermann von Wied.
Martin Bucer brought with her four children from her previous marriages.
Martin Bucer's selection caused consternation in the Cologne cathedral chapter, the clerics assisting the archbishop.
Martin Bucer led a small congregation at Bonn cathedral, where he preached three times a week, although his main responsibility was to plan reform.
Martin Bucer wrote several treatises defending von Wied's reformation plan, including a six-hundred-page book, Bestandige Verantwortung, but he was unable to influence the course of events.
Martin Bucer reassured them that Christians who humble themselves before God eventually receive his protection.
Tension grew in Strasbourg, as Martin Bucer's opponents feared he was leading the city to disaster.
Martin Bucer stood firm; even after the city of Konstanz surrendered and accepted the Interim, he called for Strasbourg to reject it unconditionally.
Martin Bucer received several offers of sanctuary, including Melanchthon's from Wittenberg and Calvin's from Geneva.
Martin Bucer accepted Archbishop Thomas Cranmer's invitation to come to England; from his correspondence with several notable Englishmen, he believed that the English Reformation had advanced with some success.
Martin Bucer took the position of Regius Professor of Divinity at the University of Cambridge.
Martin Bucer had ambitious goals in diffusing the Reformation throughout England.
Martin Bucer was disappointed, therefore, when those in power failed to consult him in bringing about change.
Martin Bucer described marriage as a social contract rather than a sacrament, hence he permitted divorce, a modern idea that was considered too advanced for its time.
Martin Bucer advocated the restructuring of economic and administrative systems with suggestions for improving industry, agriculture, and education.
The De Regno Christi was never to be the charter of the English Reformation that Martin Bucer intended: it was finally printed not in England but in Basel, in 1557.
Martin Bucer's last major contribution to the English Reformation was a treatise on the original 1549 edition of the Book of Common Prayer.
Martin Bucer called for the simplification of the liturgy, noting non-essential elements: certain holidays in the liturgical calendar, actions of piety such as genuflections, and ceremonies such as private masses.
Martin Bucer focused on the congregation and how the people would worship and be taught.
How far Martin Bucer's critique influenced the 1552 second edition of the Prayer Book is unknown.
Martin Bucer named Walter Haddon and Matthew Parker as executors, commended his loved ones to Thomas Cranmer, and thanked his stepdaughter Agnes Capito for taking care of him.
Martin Bucer was buried in the church of Great St Mary's in Cambridge before a large crowd of university professors and students.
Martin Bucer left his wife Wibrandis a significant inheritance consisting mainly of the household and his large collection of books.
Martin Bucer was not so concerned about staking a doctrinal claim per se, but rather he took a standpoint in order to discuss and to win over his opponents.
Martin Bucer is chiefly remembered for his promotion of doctrinal unity, or ecumenism, and his lifelong struggle to create an inclusive church.