19 Facts About Menominee


Menominee are a federally recognized nation of Native Americans.

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Menominee are part of the Algonquian language family of North America, made up of several tribes now located around the Great Lakes and many other tribes based along the Atlantic coast.

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The Menominee have traditionally subsisted on a wide variety of plants and animals, with wild rice and sturgeon being two of the most important.

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Menominee customs are quite similar to those of the Chippewa, another Algonquian people.

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Five principal Menominee clans are the Bear, the Eagle, the Wolf, the Crane, and the Moose.

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Ethnologist James Mooney wrote an article on the Menominee which appeared in Catholic Encyclopedia, incorrectly reporting that their descent and inheritance proceeds through the female line.

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Traditional Menominee diets include local foods such as Allium tricoccum.

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Menominee are descendants of the Late Woodland Indians who inhabited the lands once occupied by Hopewell Indians, the earliest human inhabitants of the Lake Michigan region.

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Menominee gradually sold much of their lands in Michigan and Wisconsin to the U S government through seven treaties from 1821 to 1848, first ceding their lands in Michigan.

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The Menominee retained lands near the Wolf River in what became their current reservation.

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Reservation was created in a treaty with the United States signed on May 12, 1854, in which the Menominee relinquished all claims to the lands held by them under previous treaties, and were assigned 432 square miles on the Wolf River in present-day Wisconsin.

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In 1934, the Menominee filed suit in the United States Court of Claims against the Forest Service, saying that its policy had heavily damaged their resource.

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Menominee were among the Native Americans who participated as soldiers in World War II with other United States citizens.

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The Menominee were identified for termination, which would end their status as a sovereign nation.

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The Bureau of Indian Affairs believed the Menominee were sufficiently economically self-reliant on their timber industry to be successful independent of federal assistance and oversight.

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Menominee County was the poorest and least populated Wisconsin county during this time, and termination adversely affected the region.

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Menominee signed the bill for federal recognition of the Menominee Tribe of Wisconsin on December 22, 1973.

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In 1968 the Supreme Court held that the tribe retained its hunting and fishing rights under the treaties involved, and the rights were not lost after federal recognition was ended by the Menominee Termination Act, as Congress had not clearly removed those rights in its legislation.

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Menominee developed the College of Menominee Nation in 1993 and it was accredited in 1998.

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