16 Facts About Middle English


Middle English was a form of the English language spoken after the Norman conquest until the late 15th century.

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The Middle English language underwent distinct variations and developments following the Old Middle English period.

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Middle English saw significant changes to its vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, and orthography.

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The more standardized Old Middle English language became fragmented, localized, and was, for the most part, being improvised.

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Middle English was succeeded in England by Early Modern English, which lasted until about 1650.

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Middle English saw considerable adoption of Norman vocabulary, especially in the areas of politics, law, the arts, and religion, as well as poetic and emotive diction.

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Conventional Middle English vocabulary remained primarily Germanic in its sources, with Old Norse influences becoming more apparent.

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Viking influence on Old Middle English is most apparent in the more indispensable elements of the language.

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Norman conquest of England in 1066 saw the replacement of the top levels of the Middle English-speaking political and ecclesiastical hierarchies by Norman rulers who spoke a dialect of Old French known as Old Norman, which developed in England into Anglo-Norman.

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Once the writing of Old English came to an end, Middle English had no standard language, only dialects that derived from the dialects of the same regions in the Anglo-Saxon period.

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Early Middle English has a largely Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, but a greatly simplified inflectional system.

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Chancery Standard of written English emerged c in official documents that, since the Norman Conquest, had normally been written in French.

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Chancery Standard's influence on later forms of written Middle English is disputed, but it did undoubtedly provide the core around which Early Modern Middle English formed.

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Early Modern Middle English emerged with the help of William Caxton's printing press, developed during the 1470s.

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Middle English retains only two distinct noun-ending patterns from the more complex system of inflection in Old English:.

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Grammatical gender survived to a limited extent in early Middle English, before being replaced by natural gender in the course of the Middle English period.

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