26 Facts About Muhammad Ali Jinnah

1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was an anti-colonialist barrister, politician, statesman and the founder of Pakistan.

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2. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation for Indian Muslims.

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3. At the age of 20, Muhammad Ali Jinnah began his practice in Bombay, the only Muslim barrister in the city.

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4. Dissatisfied with this, Muhammad Ali Jinnah wrote a letter to the editor of the newspaper Gujarati, asking what right the members of the delegation had to speak for Indian Muslims, as they were unelected and self-appointed.

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5. In December 1912, Muhammad Ali Jinnah addressed the annual meeting of the Muslim League although he was not yet a member.

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6. Shortly afterwords, Muhammad Ali Jinnah returned home to India in January 1915.

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7. Nevertheless, Muhammad Ali Jinnah worked to bring the Congress and League together.

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8. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petit, and was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay.

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9. Rattanbai defied her family and nominally converted to Islam, adopting the name Maryam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, resulting in a permanent estrangement from her family and Parsi society.

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10. Relations between Indians and British were strained in 1919 when the Imperial Legislative Council extended emergency wartime restrictions on civil liberties; Muhammad Ali Jinnah resigned from it when it did.

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11. At the 1920 session of the Congress in Nagpur, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was shouted down by the delegates, who passed Gandhi's proposal, pledging satyagraha until India was independent.

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12. In September 1923, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected as Muslim member for Bombay in the new Central Legislative Assembly.

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13. Early biographer Hector Bolitho denied that Muhammad Ali Jinnah sought to enter the British Parliament, while Jaswant Singh deems Muhammad Ali Jinnah's time in Britain as a break or sabbatical from the Indian struggle.

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14. In early 1934, Muhammad Ali Jinnah relocated to the subcontinent, though he shuttled between London and India on business for the next few years, selling his house in Hampstead and closing his legal practice in Britain.

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15. Choudhary Rahmat Muhammad Ali Jinnah published a pamphlet in 1933 advocating a state "Pakistan" in the Indus Valley, with other names given to Muslim-majority areas elsewhere in India.

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16. Now none but Muhammad Ali Jinnah is capable of leading the Muslims.

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17. Ahmed comments that in his annotations to Iqbal's letters, Muhammad Ali Jinnah expressed solidarity with Iqbal's view: that Indian Muslims required a separate homeland.

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18. The Muslim League was far from certain of winning the legislative votes that would be required for mixed provinces such as Bengal and Punjab to secede, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah rejected the proposals as not sufficiently recognising Pakistan's right to exist.

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19. In September 1944, Muhammad Ali Jinnah hosted Gandhi, recently released from confinement, at his home on Malabar Hill in Bombay.

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20. The League held influence at the provincial level in the Muslim-majority states mostly by alliance, and Muhammad Ali Jinnah believed that, given the opportunity, the League would improve its electoral standing and lend added support to his claim to be the sole spokesman for the Muslims.

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21. Mountbatten had hoped that the post-independence arrangements would include a common defence force, but Muhammad Ali Jinnah saw it as essential that a sovereign state should have its own forces.

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22. On 22 August 1947, just after a week of becoming governor general, Muhammad Ali Jinnah dissolved the elected government of Dr Khan Abdul Jabbar Khan.

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23. Some historians allege that Muhammad Ali Jinnah's courting the rulers of Hindu-majority states and his gambit with Junagadh are evidence of ill-intent towards India, as Muhammad Ali Jinnah had promoted separation by religion, yet tried to gain the accession of Hindu-majority states.

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24. Witness Syed Sharifuddin Pirzada stated in court that Muhammad Ali Jinnah converted to Sunni Islam in 1901 when his sisters married Sunnis.

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25. An eminent lawyer who practised in the Bombay High Court until 1940 testified that Muhammad Ali Jinnah used to pray as an orthodox Sunni.

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26. Christopher Lee, who portrayed Muhammad Ali Jinnah, called his performance the best of his career.

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