60 Facts About Muhammad Ali Jinnah

1. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the central figure of the 1998 film Jinnah, which was based on Jinnah's life and his struggle for the creation of Pakistan.

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2. Muhammad Ali Jinnah has gained the admiration of Indian nationalist politicians such as Lal Krishna Advani, whose comments praising Jinnah caused an uproar in his Bharatiya Janata Party.

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3. Muhammad Ali Jinnah is depicted on all Pakistani rupee currency, and is the namesake of many Pakistani public institutions.

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4. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was treated with the new "miracle drug" of streptomycin, but it did not help.

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5. Muhammad Ali Jinnah had always been reluctant to undergo medical treatment, but realising his condition was getting worse, the Pakistani government sent the best doctors it could find to treat him.

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6. Muhammad Ali Jinnah could not completely rest there, addressing the officers at the Command and Staff College saying, "you, along with the other Forces of Pakistan, are the custodians of the life, property and honour of the people of Pakistan.

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7. Muhammad Ali Jinnah worked in a frenzy to consolidate Pakistan.

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8. Muhammad Ali Jinnah made a brief statement of condolence, calling Gandhi "one of the greatest men produced by the Hindu community".

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9. Muhammad Ali Jinnah objected to this action, and ordered that Pakistani troops move into Kashmir.

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10. Muhammad Ali Jinnah arranged to sell his house in Bombay and procured a new one in Karachi.

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11. Muhammad Ali Jinnah demanded that Mountbatten divide the army prior to independence, which would take at least a year.

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12. Muhammad Ali Jinnah had no comment on the change of government, but called a meeting of his Working Committee and issued a statement calling for new elections in India.

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13. Muhammad Ali Jinnah proposed a temporary government along the lines which Liaquat and Desai had agreed.

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14. Muhammad Ali Jinnah insisted on Pakistan being conceded prior to the British departure and to come into being immediately, while Gandhi proposed that plebiscites on partition occur sometime after a united India gained its independence.

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15. Muhammad Ali Jinnah worked to increase the League's political control at the provincial level.

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16. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was reluctant to make specific proposals as to the boundaries of Pakistan, or its relationships with Britain and with the rest of the subcontinent, fearing that any precise plan would divide the League.

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17. On 6 February, Muhammad Ali Jinnah informed the Viceroy that the Muslim League would be demanding partition instead of the federation contemplated in the 1935 Act.

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18. Muhammad Ali Jinnah continued to borrow ideas "directly from Iqbal—including his thoughts on Muslim unity, on Islamic ideals of liberty, justice and equality, on economics, and even on practices such as prayers".

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19. Muhammad Ali Jinnah restructured the League along the lines of the Congress, putting most power in a Working Committee, which he appointed.

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20. Muhammad Ali Jinnah worked to expand the League, reducing the cost of membership to two annas, half of what it cost to join the Congress.

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21. Muhammad Ali Jinnah secured the right to speak for the Muslim-led Bengali and Punjabi provincial governments in the central government in New Delhi.

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22. In early 1934, Muhammad Ali Jinnah relocated to the subcontinent, though he shuttled between London and India on business for the next few years, selling his house in Hampstead and closing his legal practice in Britain.

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23. Muhammad Ali Jinnah continued to correspond cordially with his daughter, but their personal relationship was strained, and she did not come to Pakistan in his lifetime, but only for his funeral.

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24. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's lived and travelled with him, and became a close advisor.

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25. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a delegate to the first two conferences, but was not invited to the last.

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26. Muhammad Ali Jinnah put forth proposals that he hoped might satisfy a broad range of Muslims and reunite the League, calling for mandatory representation for Muslims in legislatures and cabinets.

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27. Muhammad Ali Jinnah replied: "I prefer to be plain Mr Jinnah.

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28. Muhammad Ali Jinnah showed much skill as a parliamentarian, organising many Indian members to work with the Swaraj Party, and continued to press demands for full responsible government.

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29. In September 1923, Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected as Muslim member for Bombay in the new Central Legislative Assembly.

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30. Muhammad Ali Jinnah sought alternative political ideas, and contemplated organising a new political party as a rival to the Congress.

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31. Muhammad Ali Jinnah opposed Gandhi, but the tide of Indian opinion was against him.

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32. Muhammad Ali Jinnah regarded Gandhi's proposed satyagraha campaign as political anarchy, and believed that self-government should be secured through constitutional means.

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33. Muhammad Ali Jinnah criticised Gandhi's Khilafat advocacy, which he saw as an endorsement of religious zealotry.

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34. Muhammad Ali Jinnah's was the fashionable young daughter of his friend Sir Dinshaw Petit, and was part of an elite Parsi family of Bombay.

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35. In 1918, Muhammad Ali Jinnah married his second wife Rattanbai Petit, 24 years his junior.

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36. Muhammad Ali Jinnah played an important role in the founding of the All India Home Rule League in 1916.

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37. In 1916, with Muhammad Ali Jinnah now president of the Muslim League, the two organisations signed the Lucknow Pact, setting quotas for Muslim and Hindu representation in the various provinces.

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38. Muhammad Ali Jinnah attended a reception for Gandhi, and returned home to India in January 1915.

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39. Muhammad Ali Jinnah led another delegation of the Congress to London in 1914, but due to the start of the First World War found officials little interested in Indian reforms.

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40. In December 1912, Muhammad Ali Jinnah addressed the annual meeting of the Muslim League although he was not yet a member.

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41. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was appointed to a committee which helped to establish the Indian Military Academy in Dehra Dun.

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42. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a compromise candidate when two older, better-known Muslims who were seeking the post deadlocked.

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43. Muhammad Ali Jinnah said that our principle of separate electorates was dividing the nation against itself.

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44. Muhammad Ali Jinnah began political life by attending the Congress's twentieth annual meeting, in Bombay in December 1904.

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45. Muhammad Ali Jinnah played an important role in enactment of Trade Union act of 1926 which gave trade union movement legal cover to organize themselves.

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46. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was elected President of All India Postal Staff Union in 1925 whose membership was 70,000.

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47. Muhammad Ali Jinnah had a sixth sense: he could see around corners.

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48. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was what God made him, a great pleader.

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49. At the age of 20, Muhammad Ali Jinnah began his practice in Bombay, the only Muslim barrister in the city.

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50. Muhammad Ali Jinnah abandoned local garb for Western-style clothing, and throughout his life he was always impeccably dressed in public.

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51. Muhammad Ali Jinnah listened to Naoroji's maiden speech in the House of Commons from the visitor's gallery.

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52. Muhammad Ali Jinnah accepted the position despite the opposition of his mother, who before he left, had him enter an arranged marriage with his cousin, two years his junior from the ancestral village of Paneli, Emibai Jinnah.

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53. Muhammad Ali Jinnah gained his matriculation from Bombay University at the high school.

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54. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was not fluent in Gujarati, his mother-tongue or in Urdu, he was more fluent in English.

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55. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the second child; he had three brothers and three sisters, including his younger sister Fatima Jinnah.

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56. Muhammad Ali Jinnah left a deep and respected legacy in Pakistan.

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57. Muhammad Ali Jinnah died at age 71 in September 1948, just over a year after Pakistan gained independence from the United Kingdom.

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58. In that year, the Muslim League, led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, passed the Lahore Resolution, demanding a separate nation.

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59. Muhammad Ali Jinnah became a key leader in the All India Home Rule League, and proposed a fourteen-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims.

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60. Muhammad Ali Jinnah was a lawyer, politician, and the founder of Pakistan.

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