12 Facts About Title IX


When Title IX was passed in 1972, only 42 percent of the students enrolled in American colleges were female.

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Title IX was enacted as a follow-up to the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964.

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Title IX was enacted to fill this gap and prohibit discrimination in all federally funded education programs.

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Precursor to Title IX was an executive order, issued in 1967 by President Lyndon Johnson, forbidding discrimination in federal contracts.

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Title IX's utilized university statistics to show how female employment at the university had plummeted as qualified women were replaced by men.

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Title IX was formally introduced in Congress by Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana in 1971 who then was its chief Senate sponsor for congressional debate.

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Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988 is tied to Title IX which was passed in response to the U S Supreme Court's 1984 ruling Grove City College v Bell.

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Introduction of Title IX was followed by a considerable increase in the number of females participating in organized sports within American academic institutions followed by growing interest in initiating and developing programs which would pursue feminist principles in relationship to concerns surrounding issues dealing with girls and women's equality and equity in sport.

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Title IX applies to all educational programs and all aspects of a school's educational system.

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Title IX has been interpreted as allowing private lawsuits against educational institutions as well as formal complaints submitted to the Department of Education.

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The Education Department announced on February 12, 2018 that Title IX did not allow transgender students to use the bathroom of their gender identities.

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The author Laura Kipnis, author of How to Become a Scandal: Adventures in Bad Behavior, and others have argued that Title IX regulations have empowered investigators who routinely endanger academic freedom and fair process, presume the guilt of suspects, assign the man full responsibility for the outcome of any social interaction, and minutely regulate personal relationships.

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