16 Facts About Alkaline phosphatase


In Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, alkaline phosphatase is located in the periplasmic space, external to the inner cell membrane and within the peptidoglycan portion of the cell wall.

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Since the periplasmic gap is more prone to environmental variation than the inner cell, alkaline phosphatase is suitably resistant to inactivation, denaturation, or degradation.

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When particular mutant versions of alkaline phosphatase were combined, the heterodimeric enzymes formed as a result exhibited a higher level of activity than would be expected based on the relative activities of the parental enzymes.

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Alkaline phosphatase has become a useful tool in molecular biology laboratories, since DNA normally possesses phosphate groups on the 5' end.

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Alkaline phosphatase is commonly used in the dairy industry as an indicator of successful pasteurization.

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Fluorimetry assays are required by milk producers in the UK to prove alkaline phosphatase has been denatured, as p-Nitrophenylphosphate tests are not considered accurate enough to meet health standards.

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In humans, alkaline phosphatase is present in all tissues throughout the body, but is particularly concentrated in the liver, bile duct, kidney, bone, intestinal mucosa and placenta.

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The gene for tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase is located on chromosome 1, and the genes for the other three isoforms are located on chromosome 2.

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Intestinal alkaline phosphatase is secreted by enterocytes, and seems to play a pivotal role in intestinal homeostasis and protection as well as in suppressing inflammation via repression of the downstream Toll-like receptor -4-dependent and MyD88-dependent inflammatory cascade.

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Studies show that the alkaline phosphatase protein found in cancer cells is similar to that found in nonmalignant body tissues and that the protein originates from the same gene in both.

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Also, the level of alkaline phosphatase increases if there is active bone formation occurring, as the enzyme is a byproduct of osteoblast activity .

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Level of alkaline phosphatase is much more elevated in metastatic prostate cancer cells than non-metastatic prostate cancer cells.

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SkelAlkaline phosphatase is released into circulation by a yet unclear mechanism.

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Placental alkaline phosphatase is elevated in seminomas and active forms of rickets, as well as in the following diseases and conditions:.

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Alkaline phosphatase is homodimeric enzyme, meaning it is formed with two molecules.

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Alkaline phosphatase has homology in a large number of other enzymes and composes part of a superfamily of enzymes with several overlapping catalytic aspects and substrate traits.

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