159 Facts About Andrew Jackson


Andrew Jackson was an American lawyer, planter, general, and statesman who served as the seventh president of the United States from 1829 to 1837.


Andrew Jackson was born in the colonial Carolinas before the American Revolutionary War.


Andrew Jackson became a frontier lawyer and married Rachel Donelson Robards.


Andrew Jackson briefly served in the US House of Representatives and the US Senate, representing Tennessee.


Andrew Jackson purchased a property later known as the Hermitage, becoming a wealthy planter who owned hundreds of African American slaves during his lifetime.


The subsequent Treaty of Fort Andrew Jackson required the Creek to surrender vast tracts of present-day Alabama and Georgia.


Andrew Jackson later commanded US forces in the First Seminole War, which led to the annexation of Florida from Spain.


Andrew Jackson briefly served as Florida's first territorial governor before returning to the Senate.


Andrew Jackson ran for president in 1824, winning a plurality of the popular and electoral vote, but no candidate won an electoral majority.


Andrew Jackson's supporters alleged that there was a "corrupt bargain" between Adams and Clay and began creating their own political organization that would eventually become the Democratic Party.


Andrew Jackson ran again in 1828, defeating Adams in a landslide.


Andrew Jackson threatened the use of military force to enforce the tariff, but the crisis was defused when it was amended.


In 1835, Andrew Jackson became the only president to pay off the national debt.


Andrew Jackson survived the first assassination attempt on a sitting president.


Andrew Jackson supported the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and James K Polk, as well as the annexation of Texas, which was accomplished shortly before his death.


Andrew Jackson's legacy remains controversial, and opinions on him are frequently polarized.


Andrew Jackson's parents were Scots-Irish colonists Andrew Jackson and Elizabeth Hutchinson, Presbyterians who had emigrated from Ulster, Ireland, in 1765.


Andrew Jackson's father was born in Carrickfergus, County Antrim, around 1738, and his ancestors had crossed into Northern Ireland from Scotland after the Battle of the Boyne in 1690.


Andrew Jackson later stated that he was born on the Crawford plantation, which is in Lancaster County, South Carolina, but second-hand evidence suggests that he might have been born at another uncle's home in North Carolina.


Andrew Jackson learned to read, write, work with numbers, and was exposed to Greek and Latin, but he was too strong-willed and hot-tempered for the ministry.


Andrew Jackson refused, and the officer slashed him with a sword, leaving him with scars on his left hand and head.


Andrew Jackson fought his first duel, accusing another lawyer, Waightstill Avery, of impugning his character.


Andrew Jackson began his new career in the frontier town of Nashville in 1788 and quickly moved up in social status.


Andrew Jackson became a protege of William Blount, one of the most powerful men in the territory.


Andrew Jackson was appointed attorney general in 1791 and judge advocate for the militia the following year.


Andrew Jackson got involved in land speculation, eventually forming a partnership with fellow lawyer John Overton.


Andrew Jackson became a member of the Democratic-Republican Party, the dominant party in Tennessee.


Andrew Jackson was elected as a delegate to the Tennessee constitutional convention in 1796.


In Congress, Andrew Jackson argued against the Jay Treaty, criticized George Washington for allegedly removing Democratic-Republicans from public office, and joined several other Democratic-Republican congressmen in voting against a resolution of thanks for Washington.


Andrew Jackson advocated for the right of Tennesseans to militarily oppose Native American interests.


Andrew Jackson had almost gone bankrupt when the credit he used for land speculation collapsed in the wake of an earlier financial panic.


Andrew Jackson had to sell Hunters Hill, as well as 25,000 acres of land he bought for speculation, and bought a smaller 420-acre plantation near Nashville that he would call the Hermitage.


Andrew Jackson focused on recovering from his losses by becoming a successful planter and merchant.


In 1804, Andrew Jackson had nine African American slaves; by 1820, he had over 100; and by his death in 1845, he had over 150.


Andrew Jackson subscribed to the paternalistic idea of slavery, which claimed that slave ownership was morally acceptable as long as slaves were treated with humanity and their basic needs were cared for.


For example, in an 1804 advertisement to recover a runaway slave, Andrew Jackson offered "ten dollars extra, for every hundred lashes any person will give him, to the amount of three hundred".


In May 1806, Andrew Jackson fought a duel with Charles Dickinson.


Later in the year, Andrew Jackson became involved in former vice president Aaron Burr's plan to conquer Spanish Florida and drive the Spanish from Texas.


In October 1806, Andrew Jackson wrote James Winchester that the United States "can conquer not only the Floridas [at that time there was an East Florida and a West Florida], but all Spanish North America".


Andrew Jackson sent a letter to president Thomas Jefferson telling him that Tennessee was ready to defend the nation's honor.


Andrew Jackson warned the Governor of Louisiana William Claiborne and Tennessee Senator Daniel Smith that some of the people involved in the adventure might be intending to break away from the United States.


Andrew Jackson testified before a grand jury at Burr's trial in 1807, implying that it was Burr's associate James Wilkinson who was guilty of treason, not Burr.


Andrew Jackson immediately offered to raise volunteers for the war, but he was not called to duty until after the United States military was repeatedly defeated in the American Northwest.


When his forces arrived at Natchez, they were ordered to halt by General Wilkinson, the commander at New Orleans and the man Andrew Jackson accused of treason after the Burr adventure.


Nobody was killed, but Andrew Jackson received a gunshot in the shoulder that nearly killed him.


Andrew Jackson had not fully recovered from his wounds when Governor Blount called out the militia in September 1813 following the August Fort Mims Massacre.


Andrew Jackson sent his cavalry under General Coffee ahead of the main force, destroying Red Stick villages and capturing supplies.


Later in the month, Andrew Jackson defeated another band of Red Sticks who were besieging Creek allies at the Battle of Talladega.


Andrew Jackson repelled them, but he was forced to withdraw to Fort Strother.


Andrew Jackson's army was reinforced by further recruitment and the addition of regular army unit, the 39th US Infantry Regiment commanded by Colonel John Williams.


Andrew Jackson's forces numbered over 3,000 men; the Red Sticks had about 1,000.


Andrew Jackson continued his scorched-earth campaign of burning villages, destroying supplies, and starving Red Stick women and children.


Andrew Jackson then turned his attention to the British and Spanish.


Andrew Jackson accused the Spanish governor of West Florida, Mateo Gonzalez Manrique, of arming the Red Sticks and threatened to attack.


Weeks later, Andrew Jackson learned that the British were planning an attack on New Orleans, which was the gateway to the Lower Mississippi River and control of the American West.


Andrew Jackson evacuated Pensacola, strengthened the garrison at Mobile, and led his troops to New Orleans.


Andrew Jackson augmented his force by forming an alliance with Jean Lafitte's smugglers and raising units of free African Americans and Creek, paying non-white volunteers the same salary as whites.


Andrew Jackson refused to lift martial law and kept the militia under arms.


Andrew Jackson approved the execution of six militiamen for desertion.


Andrew Jackson then ordered all French citizens to leave the city within three days, and had a member of the Louisiana legislature, Louis Louaillier, arrested when he wrote a newspaper article criticizing Andrew Jackson's continuation of martial law.


Andrew Jackson's victory made him a national hero, and on February 27,1815, he was given the Thanks of Congress and awarded a Congressional Gold Medal.


Andrew Jackson continued to displace the Native Americans in areas under his command.


Andrew Jackson ordered Colonel Duncan Clinch to capture the fort in July 1816.


Andrew Jackson destroyed it and killed many of the garrison.


Andrew Jackson believed the best way to do this was to seize Florida from Spain once and for all.


Andrew Jackson invaded Florida, captured the Spanish fort of St Marks, and occupied Pensacola.


Andrew Jackson captured two British agents, Robert Ambrister and Alexander Arbuthnot, who had been working with the Seminoles.


The United States reduced its military and Andrew Jackson was forced to retire from his major general position.


Andrew Jackson served as the governor for two months, returning to the Hermitage in ill health.


In 1822, Andrew Jackson accepted a plan by Overton to nominate him as a candidate for the 1824 presidential election, and he was nominated by the Tennessee legislature in July.


Andrew Jackson was intended to be a stalking horse candidate to prevent Tennessee's electoral votes from going to Crawford, who was seen as a Washington insider.


Unexpectedly, Andrew Jackson garnered popular support outside of Tennessee and became a serious candidate.


Andrew Jackson benefited from the expansion of suffrage among white males that followed the conclusion of the War of 1812.


Andrew Jackson was a popular war hero whose reputation suggested he had the decisiveness and independence to bring change to how the government was run.


Andrew Jackson was promoted as a Washington outsider who stood for all the people, blaming banks for the country's depression.


Andrew Jackson was appointed chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs, but avoided debate or initiating legislation.


Andrew Jackson used his time in the Senate to form alliances and make peace with old adversaries.


Andrew Jackson was nominated by a Pennsylvania convention, making him not merely a regional candidate from the west but the leading national contender.


Andrew Jackson was the only candidate to win states outside of his regional base: Adams dominated New England, Crawford won Virginia and Georgia, and Clay took three western states.


Adams appointed Clay as his Secretary of State, leading supporters of Andrew Jackson to accuse Clay and Adams of having struck a "corrupt bargain".


Andrew Jackson was perceived as an intellectual elite who ignored the needs of the populace.


Andrew Jackson was unable to accomplish anything because Congress blocked his proposals.


Andrew Jackson was nominated for president by the Tennessee legislature in October 1825, more than three years before the 1828 election.


Andrew Jackson gained powerful supporters in both the south and north, including Calhoun, who became Jackson's vice presidential running mate, and New York Senator Martin Van Buren.


Andrew Jackson won 56 percent of the popular vote and 68 percent of the electoral vote.


The election ended the one-party system that had formed during the Era of Good Feelings as Andrew Jackson's supporters coalesced into the Democratic Party and the various groups who did not support him eventually formed the Whig Party.


Andrew Jackson was accused of being the son of an English prostitute and a mulatto, and he was labeled a slave trader who trafficked in human flesh.


Andrew Jackson had been under stress throughout the election, and just as Jackson was preparing to head to Washington for his inauguration, she fell ill.


Andrew Jackson did not live to see her husband become president, dying of a stroke or heart attack a few days later, and was buried on Christmas Eve.


Andrew Jackson chose Van Buren as Secretary of State, his friend John Eaton as Secretary of War, Samuel D Ingham as Secretary of Treasury, John Branch as Secretary of Navy, John M Berrien as Attorney General, and William T Barry as Postmaster General.


Andrew Jackson was inaugurated on March 4,1829, becoming the first president-elect to take the oath of office on the East Portico of the US Capitol.


Andrew Jackson invited the public to the White House, which was promptly overrun by well-wishers who caused minor damage to its furnishings.


Andrew Jackson's administration believed that Adams's had been corrupt and one of Andrew Jackson's first acts as president was to initiate investigations into all executive departments.


Andrew Jackson implemented a principle he called "rotation in office" by enforcing the Tenure of Office Act, signed by President Monroe in 1820, that limited appointed office tenure and authorized the president to remove and appoint political party associates.


Andrew Jackson argued that rotation in office was a democratic reform that reduced bureaucracy and corruption by preventing hereditary officeholding and made officeholders responsible to the popular will, but it functioned as political patronage, which came to be known as the spoils system.


Andrew Jackson spent much of his time during his first two and a half years in office dealing with what came to be known as the "Petticoat Affair" or "Eaton Affair".


Andrew Jackson had a reputation for being promiscuous, and like Rachel Jackson, she was accused of adultery.


Andrew Jackson tried to compensate Van Buren by appointing him the Minister to Great Britain, but Calhoun blocked the nomination with a tie-breaking vote against it.


Andrew Jackson's presidency marked the beginning of a national policy of Native American removal.


Andrew Jackson's position was later made clear in the 1832 Supreme Court test case of this legislation, Worcester v Georgia.


Andrew Jackson used the power of the federal government to enforce the separation of the Native American tribes and whites.


In May 1830, Andrew Jackson passed the Indian Removal Act through Congress.


In 1830, Andrew Jackson personally negotiated with the Chickasaw, who quickly agreed to move.


Andrew Jackson was not successful in removing the Iroquois Confederacy in New York, but when some members of the Meskwaki and the Sauk triggered the Black Hawk War by trying to cross back to the east side of the Mississippi, the peace treaties ratified after their defeat reduced their lands further.


Andrew Jackson had removed almost all the Native Americans east of the Mississippi and south of Lake Michigan, about 70,000 people, from the United States; though it was done at the cost of thousands of Native American lives lost because of the unsanitary conditions and epidemics arising from their dislocation, as well as their resistance to expulsion.


Andrew Jackson added over 170,000 square miles of land to the public domain, which primarily benefited the United States' agricultural interests.


The act benefited small farmers, as Andrew Jackson allowed them to purchase moderate plots at low prices and offered squatters on land formerly belonging to Native Americans the option to purchase it before it was offered for sale to others.


Andrew Jackson had to confront another challenge that had been building up since the beginning of his first term.


Andrew Jackson suspected Calhoun of writing the Exposition and Protest, and opposed his interpretation.


Andrew Jackson argued that Congress as a whole had full authority to enact tariffs and that a dissenting state was denying the will of the majority.


Andrew Jackson asked Congress to pass a "Force Bill" authorizing the military to enforce the tariff.


Andrew Jackson saw it as an effective way to end the confrontation, but insisted on the passage of the Force Bill before he signed.


Under the Bank's stewardship, the country was economically healthy and the currency was stable, but Andrew Jackson saw the Bank as a fourth branch of government run by an elite, what he called the "money power" that sought to control the labor and earnings of the "real people", who depend on their own efforts to succeed: the planters, farmers, mechanics, and laborers.


Andrew Jackson seemed open to keeping the Bank if it could include some degree of Federal oversight, limit its real estate holdings, and have its property subject to taxation by the states.


In 1831, Treasury Secretary Louis McLane told Biddle that Andrew Jackson was open to chartering a modified version of the Bank, but Biddle did not consult Andrew Jackson directly.


Privately, Andrew Jackson expressed opposition to the Bank; publicly, he announced that he would leave the decision concerning the Bank in the hands of the people.


Andrew Jackson was able to mobilize the Democratic Party's strong political networks.


Except for South Carolina, which passed the Ordinance of Nullification during the election month and refused to support any party by giving its votes to the future Governor of Virginia John B Floyd, the South supported Jackson for implementing the Indian Removal Act, as well as for his willingness to compromise by signing the Tariff of 1832.


Andrew Jackson won the election by a landslide, receiving 55 percent of the popular vote and 219 electoral votes.


Andrew Jackson saw his victory as a mandate to continue his war on the Bank's control over the national economy.


In 1833, Andrew Jackson signed an executive order ending the deposit of Treasury receipts in the bank.


When Secretary of the Treasury McLane refused to execute the order, Jackson replaced him with William J Duane, who refused.


Andrew Jackson's actions led those who disagreed with him to form the Whig Party.


Andrew Jackson had Federal funds deposited into state banks friendly to the administration's policies, which critics called pet banks.


In January 1835, Andrew Jackson paid off the national debt, the only time in US history that it had been accomplished.


Andrew Jackson was the first president to be subjected to physical assault as well an assassination attempt.


Andrew Jackson attacked Lawrence with his cane until others intervened to restrain Lawrence, who was later found not guilty by reason of insanity and institutionalized.


Andrew Jackson considered the issue too divisive to the nation and to the delicate alliances of the Democratic Party, while sympathetic newspapers argued for excluding slavery from federal politics and keeping it at the state level.


Andrew Jackson's view was challenged when the American Anti-Slavery Society formally agitated for abolition by sending anti-slavery tracts through the postal system into the South in 1835.


Andrew Jackson condemned these agitators as "monsters" who should atone with their lives because they were attempting to destroy the Union by encouraging sectionalism.


Andrew Jackson asked Congress in 1834 to authorize reprisals against French property if the country failed to make payment, as well as to arm for defense.


The new Republic asked Andrew Jackson to recognize and annex it.


Andrew Jackson was concerned because Texas had legalized slavery, which was an issue that could divide the Democrats during the 1836 election.


Andrew Jackson recognized the Republic of Texas on the last full day of his presidency, March 3,1837.


When Chief Justice Marshall died in 1835, Andrew Jackson nominated Taney for Chief Justice; he was confirmed by the new Senate, serving as Chief Justice until 1864.


Andrew Jackson was regarded with respect during his career on the bench, but he is most remembered for his decision in Dred Scott v Sandford.


In 1837, Andrew Jackson retired to the Hermitage and immediately began putting its affairs in order, as it had been poorly managed in his absence.


Andrew Jackson supported an Independent Treasury system as a solution to the panic, which would hold the money balances of the government in the form of gold or silver and would be restricted from printing paper money to prevent further inflation.


Andrew Jackson favored James K Polk as vice presidential candidate, but no candidate for that office was chosen.


Andrew Jackson was encouraged because Tyler was not bound to party loyalties.


Andrew Jackson lobbied for the annexation of Texas, insisting that it belonged to the United States as part of the Louisiana Purchase.


Andrew Jackson thought that annexation would cause national division over slavery, but feared the British could use Texas as a base to threaten the United States.


Andrew Jackson wrote several letters to Texas president Sam Houston, urging him to wait for the Senate to approve annexation and explaining how much Texas would benefit as a part of the United States.


Henry Clay, the Whig nominee for the 1844 presidential election, and Van Buren, Andrew Jackson's preferred candidate for the Democratic Party, both opposed annexation.


Polk defeated Van Buren for the nomination, and Andrew Jackson convinced Tyler not to run as an independent by bringing him back into the Democratic Party.


Andrew Jackson died of dropsy, tuberculosis and heart failure at 78 years of age on June 8,1845.


Andrew Jackson had three Creek children living with them: Lyncoya, a Creek orphan Andrew Jackson had adopted after the Battle of Tallushatchee, and two boys they called Theodore and Charley.


Andrew Jackson had a reputation for being short-tempered and violent, which terrified his opponents.


Andrew Jackson was able to use his temper strategically to accomplish what he wanted.


Andrew Jackson could keep it in check when necessary: his behavior was friendly and urbane when he went to Washington as senator during the campaign leading up to the 1824 election.


For example, on the last day of his presidency, Jackson declared he had only two regrets: that he had not hanged Henry Clay or shot John C Calhoun.


Andrew Jackson considered threats to his friends as threats to himself, but he demanded unquestioning loyalty in return.


In 1838, Andrew Jackson became an official member of the First Presbyterian Church in Nashville.


Andrew Jackson has been variously described as a frontiersman personifying the independence of the American West, a slave-owning member of the Southern gentry, and a populist who promoted faith in the wisdom of the ordinary citizen.


Andrew Jackson has been represented as a statesman who substantially advanced the spirit of democracyand upheld the foundations of American constitutionalism, as well as an autocratic demagogue who crushed political opposition and trampled the law.


Andrew Jackson was seen as its personification, an individual free of societal constraints who can achieve great things.


Andrew Jackson's legacy has been variously used by later presidents.


Franklin D Roosevelt used Jackson to redefine the Democratic Party, describing him as a defender of the exploited and downtrodden and as a fighter for social justice and human rights.


Andrew Jackson is usually rated highly as a president, but his reputation is dropping.