18 Facts About Antimicrobial resistance


Antimicrobial resistance occurs when microbes evolve mechanisms that protect them from the effects of antimicrobials.

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Antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance is a major subset of AMR, that applies specifically to bacteria that become resistant to antibiotics.

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Antimicrobial resistance is increasing globally due to increased prescription and dispensing of antibiotic drugs in developing countries.

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Worldwide antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance is not completely identified, but poorer countries with weaker healthcare systems are more affected.

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Antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance—when bacteria change so antibiotics no longer work in people who need them to treat infections—is a major threat to public health.

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In 2018, WHO considered antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance to be one of the biggest threats to global health, food security and development.

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Antimicrobial resistance can evolve naturally due to continued exposure to antimicrobials.

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For instance, methicillin-Antimicrobial resistance evolved in a pathogen of hedgehogs, possibly as a co-evolutionary adaptation of the pathogen to hedgehogs that are infected by a dermatophyte that naturally produces antibiotics.

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Antimicrobial resistance crisis extends to the food industry, specifically with food producing animals.

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ResistanceOpen is an online global map of antimicrobial resistance developed by HealthMap which displays aggregated data on antimicrobial resistance from publicly available and user submitted data.

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People can help tackle Antimicrobial resistance by using antibiotics only when prescribed by a doctor; completing the full prescription, even if they feel better; never sharing antibiotics with others or using leftover prescriptions.

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The strong link between increased consumption and Antimicrobial resistance indicates that this will directly mitigate the accelerating spread of AMR.

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Six pathogens causing most deaths associated with Antimicrobial resistance are Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

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In gram-negative bacteria, plasmid-mediated Antimicrobial resistance genes produce proteins that can bind to DNA gyrase, protecting it from the action of quinolones.

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Antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance can be acquired as a result of either genetic mutation or horizontal gene transfer.

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Antibiotic Antimicrobial resistance can be introduced artificially into a microorganism through laboratory protocols, sometimes used as a selectable marker to examine the mechanisms of gene transfer or to identify individuals that absorbed a piece of DNA that included the Antimicrobial resistance gene and another gene of interest.

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Researchers hypothesize that the mechanism of resistance evolution is based on four SNP mutations in the genome of E coli produced by the gradient of antibiotic.

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One source of Antimicrobial resistance is that many current HIV drugs, including NRTIs and NNRTIs, target reverse transcriptase; however, HIV-1 reverse transcriptase is highly error prone and thus mutations conferring Antimicrobial resistance arise rapidly.

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