12 Facts About Classical Greece


Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years in Ancient Greece, marked by much of the eastern Aegean and northern regions of Greek culture (such as Ionia and Macedonia) gaining increased autonomy from the Persian Empire; the peak flourishing of democratic Athens; the First and Second Peloponnesian Wars; the Spartan and then Theban hegemonies; and the expansion of Macedonia under Philip II.

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The Classical Greece era ended after Philip II's unification of most of the Greek world against the common enemy of the Persian Empire, which was conquered within 13 years during the wars of Alexander the Great, Philip's son.

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Classical Greece was victorious and again subjugated the former and conquered the latter, but he was wounded and forced to retreat back into Asia Minor.

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Classical Greece encouraged Persia to give Sparta financial aid to build a navy, advising that long and continuous warfare between Sparta and Athens would weaken both city-states and allow the Persians to dominate the Greek peninsula.

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Classical Greece was recalled to Sparta, and once there did not attend to any important matters.

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Sparta carried out large-scale operations and peripheral interventions in Epirus and in the north of Classical Greece, resulting in the capture of the fortress of Thebes, the Cadmea, after an expedition in the Chalcidice and the capture of Olynthos.

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Classical Greece equally supported the reconstruction of the city of Messene thanks to an invasion of Laconia that allowed him to liberate the helots and give them Messene as a capital.

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Classical Greece decided in the end to constitute small confederacies all round the Peloponnessus, forming an Arcadian confederacy.

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Classical Greece had failed and, according to Xenophon, the history of the Greek world was no longer intelligible.

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The conflict between Macedonia and all the city-states of Classical Greece came to a head in 338 BC, at the Battle of Chaeronea.

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Classical Greece managed to spread Greek culture throughout the known world.

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Legacy of Classical Greece was strongly felt by post-Renaissance European elite, who saw themselves as the spiritual heirs of Classical Greece.

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