22 Facts About DNA testing


Genetic testing, known as DNA testing, is used to identify changes in DNA sequence or chromosome structure.

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Genetic testing can include measuring the results of genetic changes, such as RNA analysis as an output of gene expression, or through biochemical analysis to measure specific protein output.

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Early forms of genetic DNA testing which began in the 1950s involved counting the number of chromosomes per cell.

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Genetic DNA testing is often done as part of a genetic consultation and as of mid-2008 there were more than 1,200 clinically applicable genetic tests available.

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The procedures used for prenatal DNA testing carry a small but non-negligible risk of losing the pregnancy because they require a sample of amniotic fluid or tissue from around the fetus.

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Many of the risks associated with genetic DNA testing involve the emotional, social, or financial consequences of the test results.

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The potential negative impact of genetic DNA testing has led to an increasing recognition of a "right not to know".

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In some cases, genetic DNA testing creates tension within a family because the results can reveal information about other family members in addition to the person who is tested.

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Genetic DNA testing can provide only limited information about an inherited condition.

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DNA testing studies have been criticised for a range of methodological problems and providing misleading, interpretations on racial classifications.

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Direct-to-consumer genetic DNA testing is a type of genetic test that is accessible directly to the consumer without having to go through a health care professional.

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Possible benefits of DTC DNA testing are the accessibility of tests to consumers, promotion of proactive healthcare, and the privacy of genetic information.

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Possible additional risks of DTC DNA testing are the lack of governmental regulation, the potential misinterpretation of genetic information, issues related to DNA testing minors, privacy of data, and downstream expenses for the public health care system.

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DTC genetic DNA testing has been controversial due to outspoken opposition within the medical community.

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Critics of DTC DNA testing argue against the risks involved, the unregulated advertising and marketing claims, the potential reselling of genetic data to third parties, and the overall lack of governmental oversight.

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DTC DNA testing involves many of the same risks associated with any genetic test.

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Some advertising for DTC genetic DNA testing has been criticized as conveying an exaggerated and inaccurate message about the connection between genetic information and disease risk, utilizing emotions as a selling factor.

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In Russia, scientific DNA testing is being actively carried out in order to study the genetic diversity of the peoples of Russia in the framework of the state task - to learn from DNA to determine the probable territory of human origin based on data on the majority of the peoples of the country.

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Some possible future ethical problems of genetic DNA testing were considered in the science fiction film Gattaca, the novel Next, and the science fiction anime series Mobile Suit Gundam Seed.

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Also, some films which include the topic of genetic DNA testing include The Island, Halloween: The Curse of Michael Myers, and the Resident Evil series.

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In Israel, uses of DNA testing to determine if people are eligible for immigration.

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Results for prenatal DNA testing are usually available more quickly because time is an important consideration in making decisions about a pregnancy.

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