24 Facts About Down syndrome


Down syndrome or Down's syndrome, known as trisomy 21, is a genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of a third copy of chromosome 21.

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The average IQ of a young adult with Down syndrome is 50, equivalent to the mental ability of an eight- or nine-year-old child, but this can vary widely.

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Down syndrome can be identified during pregnancy by prenatal screening followed by diagnostic testing or after birth by direct observation and genetic testing.

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Some children with Down syndrome are educated in typical school classes, while others require more specialized education.

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Down syndrome is one of the most common chromosome abnormalities in humans.

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Commonly, individuals with Down syndrome have better language understanding than ability to speak.

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People with Down syndrome are believed to have an increased risk of developing cancers derived from germ cells whether these cancers are blood- or non-blood-related.

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ALL in Down syndrome tends to have poorer outcomes than other cases of ALL in people without Down syndrome.

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In Down syndrome, AMKL is typically preceded by transient myeloproliferative disease, a disorder of blood cell production in which non-cancerous megakaryoblasts with a mutation in the GATA1 gene rapidly divide during the later period of pregnancy.

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People with Down syndrome have a lower risk of all major solid cancers, including those of lung, breast, and cervix, with the lowest relative rates occurring in those aged 50 years or older.

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People with Down syndrome tend to be more susceptible to gingivitis as well as early, severe periodontal disease, necrotising ulcerative gingivitis, and early tooth loss, especially in the lower front teeth.

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People with Down syndrome tend to have a more alkaline saliva resulting in a greater resistance to tooth decay, despite decreased quantities of saliva, less effective oral hygiene habits, and higher plaque indexes.

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Males with Down syndrome usually do not father children, while females have lower rates of fertility relative to those who are unaffected.

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Down syndrome is caused by having three copies of the genes on chromosome 21, rather than the usual two.

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The other common mechanisms that can give rise to Down syndrome include: a Robertsonian translocation, isochromosome, or ring chromosome.

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Dementia that occurs in Down syndrome is due to an excess of amyloid beta peptide produced in the brain and is similar to Alzheimer's disease, which involves amyloid beta build-up.

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Down syndrome is associated with an increased risk of many chronic diseases that are typically associated with older age such as Alzheimer's disease.

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Guidelines recommend screening for Down syndrome to be offered to all pregnant women, regardless of age.

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Individuals with Down syndrome have a higher risk of early death than the general population.

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Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal abnormality in humans.

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The number of pregnancies with Down syndrome is more than two times greater with many spontaneously aborting.

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In June 2020, the earliest incidence of Down syndrome was found in genomic evidence from an infant that was buried before 3200 BC at Poulnabrone dolmen in Ireland.

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Researchers believe that a number of historical pieces of art portray Down syndrome, including pottery from the pre-Columbian Tumaco-La Tolita culture in present-day Colombia and Ecuador, and the 16th-century painting The Adoration of the Christ Child.

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Down syndrome felt that the existence of Down syndrome confirmed that all peoples were genetically related.

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