26 Facts About Edward I

1. Edward I, known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Latin: Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.

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2. Edward I was on his way home in 1272 when he was informed that his father had died.

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3. Edward I spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law.

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4. Edward I was temperamental, and this, along with his height, made him an intimidating man, and he often instilled fear in his contemporaries.

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5. From 1254 to 1257, Edward I was under the influence of his mother's relatives, known as the Savoyards, the most notable of whom was Peter II of Savoy, the Queen's uncle.

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6. Edward I stood by his political allies and strongly opposed the Provisions.

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7. Edward I made several appointments to advance the cause of the reformers, causing his father to believe that Edward was considering a coup d'etat.

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8. Back in England, early in 1262, Edward I fell out with some of his former Lusignan allies over financial matters.

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9. The first scene of battle was the city of Gloucester, which Edward I managed to retake from the enemy.

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10. Edward I managed to make a surprise attack at Kenilworth Castle, where the younger Montfort was quartered, before moving on to cut off the earl of Leicester.

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11. Edward I was deeply saddened by this news, but rather than hurrying home at once, he made a leisurely journey northwards.

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12. In 1301 at Lincoln, the young Edward I became the first English prince to be invested with the title of Prince of Wales, when the King granted him the Earldom of Chester and lands across North Wales.

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13. In 1286, Edward I visited the region himself and stayed for almost three years.

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14. The couple loved each other and like his father, Edward I was very devoted to his wife and was faithful to her throughout their married lives.

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15. Edward I displayed his grief by erecting twelve so-called Eleanor crosses, one at each place where her funeral cortege stopped for the night.

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16. Edward I made alliances with the German king, the counts of Flanders and Guelders, and the Burgundians, who would attack France from the north.

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17. The support from Germany never materialised, and Edward I was forced to seek peace.

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18. Edward I responded by invading Scotland in 1296 and taking the town of Berwick-upon-Tweed in a particularly bloody attack.

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19. Edward I met contemporary expectations of kingship in his role as an able, determined soldier and in his embodiment of shared chivalric ideals.

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20. Edward I took a keen interest in the stories of King Arthur, which were highly popular in Europe during his reign.

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21. Edward I held "Round Table" events in 1284 and 1302, involving tournaments and feasting, and chroniclers compared him and the events at his court to Arthur.

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22. In some cases Edward I appears to have used his interest in the Arthurian myths to serve his own political interests, including legitimising his rule in Wales and discrediting the Welsh belief that Arthur might return as their political savior.

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23. Edward I held Parliament on a reasonably regular basis throughout his reign.

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24. In 1294, Edward I made a demand of a grant of one half of all clerical revenues.

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25. Edward I was suffering ill health by this time, and instead of leading an expedition himself, he gave different military commands to Aymer de Valence, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, and Henry Percy, 1st Baron Percy, while the main royal army was led by the Prince of Wales.

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26. Edward I acted with unusual brutality against Bruce's family, allies, and supporters.

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