17 Facts About Edward I

1. Edward I responded with severe brutality against Bruce's allies and supporters.

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2. Edward I was suffering ill health by this time, and instead of leading an expedition himself, he gave different military commands to Aymer de Valence and Henry Percy, while the main royal army was led by the Prince of Wales.

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3. Edward I finally got his revenge on Winchelsey in 1305, when Clement V was elected pope.

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4. Edward I held Parliament on a reasonably regular basis throughout his reign.

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5. In some cases Edward I appears to have used his interest in the Arthurian myths to serve his own political interests, including legitimising his rule in Wales and discrediting the Welsh belief that Arthur might return as their political saviour.

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6. Edward I held "Round Table" events in 1284 and 1302, involving tournaments and feasting, and chroniclers compared him and the events at his court to Arthur.

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7. Edward I took a keen interest in the stories of King Arthur, which were highly popular in Europe during his reign.

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8. Edward I had a reputation for a fierce temper, and he could be intimidating; one story tells of how the Dean of St Paul's, wishing to confront Edward over the high level of taxation in 1295, fell down and died once he was in the King's presence.

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9. Edward I responded by invading Scotland in 1296 and taking the town of Berwick in a particularly bloody attack.

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10. Edward I made alliances with the German king, the Counts of Flanders and Guelders, and the Burgundians, who would attack France from the north.

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11. Edward I displayed his grief by erecting twelve so-called Eleanor crosses, one at each place where her funeral cortege stopped for the night.

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12. Edward I had long been deeply involved in the affairs of his own Duchy of Gascony.

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13. Edward I managed to make a surprise attack at Kenilworth Castle, where the younger Montfort was quartered, before moving on to cut off the earl of Leicester.

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14. Edward I stood by his political allies and strongly opposed the Provisions.

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15. Edward I had shown independence in political matters as early as 1255, when he sided with the Soler family in Gascony, in the ongoing conflict between the Soler and Colomb families.

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16. Edward I was a tall man for his era, hence the nickname "Longshanks".

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17. Edward I spent much of his reign reforming royal administration and common law.

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