English law, known as English and Welsh law or English common law, is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
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Common English law is made by sitting judges who apply both statutory English law and established principles which are derived from the reasoning from earlier decisions.
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However, most of its criminal English law has been codified from its common English law origins, in the interests both of certainty and of ease of prosecution.
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Criminal English law is the English law of crime and punishment whereby the Crown prosecutes the accused.
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Civil English law is concerned with tort, contract, families, companies and so on.
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Civil English law courts operate to provide a party who has an enforceable claim with a remedy such as damages or a declaration.
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Public English law is the English law governing relationships between individuals and the state.
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Private English law encompasses relationships between private individuals and other private entities.
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Common English law is a term with historical origins in the legal system of England.
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The term is used, in the second place, to denote the English law developed by those courts, in the same periods, as distinct from within the jurisdiction, or former jurisdiction, of other courts in England: the Court of Chancery, the ecclesiastical courts, and the Admiralty court.
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Since 1189, English law has been a common law, not a civil law system; in other words, no comprehensive codification of the law has taken place and judicial precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.
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