10 Facts About Ghadir Khumm


The gathering is said to have taken place at the Ghadir Khumm, located near the then settlement of al-Juhfa on the path between Mecca and Medina, where Muhammad halted the caravan of Muslims returning from the Farewell Pilgrimage.

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Ghadir Khumm refers both to the gathering of Muslims for Muhammad's sermon and its location, which was a pond fed by a nearby spring in a wadi known as Khumm, situated between Mecca and Medina.

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The announcement at the Ghadir Khumm took place among a congregation of these Muslims during the return journey.

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At the Ghadir Khumm, Muhammad called the Muslim caravan to a halt ahead of the noon congregational prayer, before the pilgrims parted to go their separate ways, asking for a dais to be raised, shaded by palm branches.

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Ghadir Khumm then continued, "O God, befriend the friend of Ali and be the enemy of his enemy, " according to some sources, including the Sunni Shawahid al-tanzil and the Shia Nahj al-haqq.

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Historicity of the Ghadir Khumm is rarely disputed within the Muslim community, as its recorded tradition is "among the most extensively acknowledged and substantiated" in classical Islamic sources, even as the statements made at the event remain open to interpretation.

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Narrative of the Ghadir Khumm is for instance preserved in Chronology of Ancient Nations by the Sunni al-Biruni, which survives in an early fourteenth-century Ilkhanid copy by Ibn al-Kutbi.

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Accounts of the Ghadir Khumm appear elsewhere in both Sunni and Shia canonical works of hadith and these accounts have at times been used interchangeably without sectarian prejudice.

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Ghadir Khumm argues that the despair of unbelievers and the enemies of Islam in this verse followed the appointment of Ali to rightly guide the nascent Muslim community after the prophet.

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The Sunni historian Ibn Kathir, for instance, sides with Ali in his account of the episode but suggests that the Ghadir Khumm sermon was simply intended as a public declaration of Muhammad's love and esteem for Ali in light of the earlier events.

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