27 Facts About Imperial Rome


The city of Rome remained the nominal capital of both parts until AD 476 when the imperial insignia were sent to Constantinople following the capture of the Western capital of Ravenna by the Germanic barbarians.

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Imperial Rome had begun expanding shortly after the founding of the republic in the 6th century BC, though it did not expand outside the Italian peninsula until the 3rd century BC.

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Imperial Rome suffered a long series of internal conflicts, conspiracies, and civil wars from the late second century BC onward, while greatly extending its power beyond Italy.

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The faction of his assassins was driven from Imperial Rome and defeated at the Battle of Philippi in 42 BC by an army led by Mark Antony and Caesar's adopted son Octavian.

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Confident that he fixed the disorders that were plaguing Imperial Rome, he abdicated along with his co-emperor, and the Tetrarchy soon collapsed.

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Imperial Rome did this by declaring Zeno sole emperor, and placing himself as his nominal subordinate.

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The range of ethnicities among slaves to some extent reflected that of the armies Imperial Rome defeated in war, and the conquest of Greece brought a number of highly skilled and educated slaves into Imperial Rome.

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Imperial Rome differed from Greek city-states in allowing freed slaves to become citizens.

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Communities with demonstrated loyalty to Imperial Rome retained their own laws, could collect their own taxes locally, and in exceptional cases were exempt from Roman taxation.

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Imperial cult of ancient Rome identified emperors and some members of their families with the divinely sanctioned authority of the Roman State.

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Imperial Rome's influence was advertised by having her letters on official matters published, as a sign that the emperor was reasonable in his exercise of authority and listened to his people.

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For Imperial Rome, the military was a full-time career in itself.

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Imperial Rome's staff was minimal: his official attendants, including lictors, heralds, messengers, scribes, and bodyguards; legates, both civil and military, usually of equestrian rank; and friends, ranging in age and experience, who accompanied him unofficially.

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Imperial Rome had no central bank, and regulation of the banking system was minimal.

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The major suppliers for the city of Imperial Rome were the west coast of Italy, southern Gaul, the Tarraconensis region of Hispania, and Crete.

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Rich families from Imperial Rome usually had two or more houses, a townhouse and at least one luxury home outside the city.

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The largest such venue in Imperial Rome was the Circus Maximus, the setting of horse races, chariot races, the equestrian Troy Game, staged beast hunts, athletic contests, gladiator combat, and historical re-enactments.

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Commercial production of books had been established by the late Republic, and by the 1st century AD certain neighbourhoods of Imperial Rome were known for their bookshops, which were found in Western provincial cities such as Lugdunum.

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Imperial Rome libraries housed in state buildings were open to users as a privilege on a limited basis, and represented a literary canon from which disreputable writers could be excluded.

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Imperial Rome recognized the importance of play in child development, and disapproved of corporal punishment because it discouraged love of learning—in contrast to the practice in most Roman primary schools of routinely striking children with a cane or birch rod for being slow or disruptive.

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Young men from Imperial Rome who wished to pursue the highest levels of education often went abroad to study rhetoric and philosophy, mostly to one of several Greek schools in Athens.

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The archaic religion believed to have been handed down from the earliest kings of Imperial Rome was the foundation of the mos maiorum, "the way of the ancestors" or "tradition", viewed as central to Roman identity.

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Imperial cult, influenced by Hellenistic ruler cult, became one of the major ways Rome advertised its presence in the provinces and cultivated shared cultural identity and loyalty throughout the Empire.

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One way that Imperial Rome promoted stability among diverse peoples was by supporting their religious heritage, building temples to local deities that framed their theology within the hierarchy of Roman religion.

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Imperial Rome supported the church financially and made laws that favored it, but the new religion had established itself as successful prior to Constantine.

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Imperial Rome's reforms were met by Christian resistance and civic inertia.

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Imperial Rome even launched an invasion of Otranto, located in Southern Italy, with the purpose of re-uniting the Empire, which was aborted by his death.

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