13 Facts About Indo-European language


The Indo-European family is divided into several branches or sub-families, of which there are eight groups with languages still alive today: Albanian, Armenian, Balto-Slavic, Celtic, Germanic, Hellenic, Indo-Iranian, and Italic; and another nine subdivisions that are now extinct.

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The geographical location where it was spoken, the Proto-Indo-European language homeland, has been the object of many competing hypotheses; the academic consensus supports the Kurgan hypothesis, which posits the homeland to be the Pontic–Caspian steppe in what is Ukraine and southern Russia, associated with the Yamnaya culture and other related archaeological cultures during the 4th millennium BC to early 3rd millennium BC.

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The Indo-European family is significant to the field of historical linguistics as it possesses the second-longest recorded history of any known family, after the Afroasiatic family in the form of the pre-Arab Egyptian language and the Semitic languages.

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Indo-European language included in his hypothesis Dutch, Albanian, Greek, Latin, Persian, and German, later adding Slavic, Celtic, and Baltic languages.

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Franz Bopp wrote in 1816 On the conjugational system of the Sanskrit Indo-European language compared with that of Greek, Latin, Persian and Germanic and between 1833 and 1852 he wrote Comparative Grammar.

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Various subgroups of the Indo-European language family include ten major branches, listed below in alphabetical order:.

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For example, what makes the Germanic languages a branch of Indo-European is that much of their structure and phonology can be stated in rules that apply to all of them.

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An extension to the Ringe-Warnow model of Indo-European language evolution, suggests that early IE had featured limited contact between distinct lineages, with only the Germanic subfamily exhibiting a less treelike behaviour as it acquired some characteristics from neighbours early in its evolution.

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Features that separate Anatolian from all other branches of Indo-European language have been interpreted alternately as archaic debris or as innovations due to prolonged isolation.

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However, these theories remain highly controversial, and most specialists in Indo-European language linguistics are sceptical or agnostic about such proposals.

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None of the daughter-Indo-European language families reflect the plain velar stops differently from the other two series, and there is even a certain amount of dispute whether this series existed at all in PIE.

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None of the various daughter-Indo-European language families continue it unchanged, with numerous "solutions" to the apparently unstable PIE situation:.

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Success of the Indo-European language family, including the large number of speakers and the vast portions of the Earth that they inhabit, is due to several factors.

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