26 Facts About Egyptian language


Egyptian language or Ancient Egyptian is an extinct Afro-Asiatic language that was spoken in ancient Egypt.

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However, other scholars have argued that the Ancient Egyptian language shared closer linguistic ties with north-eastern African regions.

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Egyptian language has many biradical and perhaps monoradical roots, in contrast to the Semitic preference for triradical roots.

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Egyptian language is probably more conservative, and Semitic likely underwent later regularizations converting roots into the triradical pattern.

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Egyptian language is conventionally grouped into six major chronological divisions:.

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Old, Middle, and Late Egyptian language were all written using both the hieroglyphic and hieratic scripts.

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Term "Archaic Egyptian language" is sometimes reserved for the earliest use of hieroglyphs, from the late fourth through the early third millennia BC.

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Old Egyptian language is dated from the oldest known complete sentence, including a finite verb, which has been found.

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Middle Egyptian language was spoken for about 700 years, beginning around 2000 BC.

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Whilst most Middle Egyptian language is seen written on monuments by hieroglyphs, it was written using a cursive variant, and the related hieratic.

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Middle Egyptian language first became available to modern scholarship with the decipherment of hieroglyphs in the early 19th century.

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The first grammar of Middle Egyptian language was published by Adolf Erman in 1894, surpassed in 1927 by Alan Gardiner's work.

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Middle Egyptian language has been well-understood since then, although certain points of the verbal inflection remained open to revision until the mid-20th century, notably due to the contributions of Hans Jakob Polotsky.

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Middle Egyptian language stage is taken to have ended around the 14th century BC, giving rise to Late Egyptian language.

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Middle Egyptian was retained as a literary standard language, and in this usage survived until the Christianisation of Roman Egypt in the 4th century.

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Late Egyptian language, appearing around 1350 BC, is represented by a large body of religious and secular literature, comprising such examples as the Story of Wenamun, the love poems of the Chester–Beatty I papyrus, and the Instruction of Any.

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Demotic is the name given to the Egyptian script used to write both the Egyptian vernacular of the Late Period from the eight century BC as well as texts in archaic forms of the language.

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The last evidence of archaic Egyptian language in Demotic is a graffito written in 452 BC, but Demotic was used to write vernacular before and in parallel with the Coptic script throughout the early Ptolemaic Kingdom until it was supplanted by the Coptic alphabet entirely.

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Phonologically, Egyptian language contrasted labial, alveolar, palatal, velar, uvular, pharyngeal, and glottal consonants.

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That is probably because the standard for written Egyptian language is based on a dialect in which had merged with other sonorants.

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In later Egyptian language, stressed CV:C, CVCC, and CV become much more common because of the loss of final dentals and glides.

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Egyptian language has three different types of personal pronouns: suffix, enclitic and independent pronouns.

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Non-finite verbs occur without a subject and are the infinitive, the participles and the negative infinitive, which Egyptian language Grammar: Being an Introduction to the Study of Hieroglyphs calls "negatival complement".

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Early stages of Egyptian language have no articles, but the later forms use p?, t? and n?.

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However, later Egyptian language has a tendency to lose the dual as a productive form.

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Egyptian language survived through the Middle Ages and into the early modern period in the form of the Coptic language.

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