29 Facts About Ancient Egyptian


Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes .

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Success of ancient Egyptian civilization came partly from its ability to adapt to the conditions of the Nile River valley for agriculture.

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Ancient Egyptian began his official history with the king named "Meni", who was believed to have united the two kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt.

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Transition to a unified state happened more gradually than ancient Egyptian writers represented, and there is no contemporary record of Menes.

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Ancient Egyptian established a new dynasty and, in the New Kingdom that followed, the military became a central priority for the kings, who sought to expand Egypt's borders and attempted to gain mastery of the Near East.

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Ancient Egyptian was devoted to his new religion and artistic style.

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Some traditions merged, as Greek and Ancient Egyptian gods were syncretized into composite deities, such as Serapis, and classical Greek forms of sculpture influenced traditional Ancient Egyptian motifs.

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Ancient Egyptian society was highly stratified, and social status was expressly displayed.

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An Ancient Egyptian colony stationed in southern Canaan dates to slightly before the First Dynasty.

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Narmer had Ancient Egyptian pottery produced in Canaan and exported back to Egypt.

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Ancient Egyptian language is a northern Afro-Asiatic language closely related to the Berber and Semitic languages.

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The phases of ancient Egyptian are Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian, Late Egyptian, Demotic and Coptic.

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Ancient Egyptian writings do not show dialect differences before Coptic, but it was probably spoken in regional dialects around Memphis and later Thebes.

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Ancient Egyptian was a synthetic language, but it became more analytic later on.

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Late Ancient Egyptian developed prefixal definite and indefinite articles, which replaced the older inflectional suffixes.

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Ancient Egyptian has 25 consonants similar to those of other Afro-Asiatic languages.

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The basic word in Ancient Egyptian, similar to Semitic and Berber, is a triliteral or biliteral root of consonants and semiconsonants.

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Late Ancient Egyptian was spoken from the New Kingdom onward and is represented in Ramesside administrative documents, love poetry and tales, as well as in Demotic and Coptic texts.

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The wealthy members of ancient Egyptian society enjoyed hunting, fishing, and boating as well.

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Ancient Egyptian artisans used stone as a medium for carving statues and fine reliefs, but used wood as a cheap and easily carved substitute.

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The Ancient Egyptian pantheon was populated by gods who had supernatural powers and were called on for help or protection.

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Ancient Egyptian military was responsible for defending Egypt against foreign invasion, and for maintaining Egypt's domination in the ancient Near East.

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Ancient Egyptian physicians were renowned in the ancient Near East for their healing skills, and some, such as Imhotep, remained famous long after their deaths.

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Ancient Egyptian surgeons stitched wounds, set broken bones, and amputated diseased limbs, but they recognized that some injuries were so serious that they could only make the patient comfortable until death occurred.

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In fact one of the earliest Ancient Egyptian words for a seagoing ship is a "Byblos Ship", which originally defined a class of Ancient Egyptian seagoing ships used on the Byblos run; however, by the end of the Old Kingdom, the term had come to include large seagoing ships, whatever their destination.

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In 2013, a team of Franco-Ancient Egyptian archaeologists discovered what is believed to be the world's oldest port, dating back about 4500 years, from the time of King Cheops on the Red Sea coast near Wadi el-Jarf .

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The importance of mathematics to an educated Ancient Egyptian is suggested by a New Kingdom fictional letter in which the writer proposes a scholarly competition between himself and another scribe regarding everyday calculation tasks such as accounting of land, labor, and grain.

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Ancient Egyptian mathematicians knew the Pythagorean theorem as an empirical formula.

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Meroitic is the oldest written language in Africa, other than Ancient Egyptian, and was used from the 2nd century BC until the early 5th century AD.

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