1. James Madison was honored on a Postage Issue of 1894.
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3. James Madison believed that former slaves were unlikely to successfully integrate into Southern society, and in the late 1780s, he became interested in the idea of African-Americans establishing colonies in Africa.
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5. Regardless of his own religious beliefs, James Madison believed in religious liberty, and he advocated for Virginia's disestablishment of the Anglican Church throughout the late 1770s and 1780s.
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8. James Madison was disappointed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably.
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10. In his retirement, James Madison occasionally became involved in public affairs, advising Andrew Jackson and other presidents.
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12. When James Madison left office in 1817 at age 65, he retired to Montpelier, his tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia, not far from Jefferson's Monticello.
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15. At the same time, James Madison embraced some aspects of the Federalist program that he had previously opposed, weakening the ideological divisions between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.
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21. James Madison accepted Napoleon's proposal in the hope that it would convince the British to revoke the Orders-in-Council, but the British refused to change their policies.
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33. At the request of Washington, James Madison sought a seat in the United States Senate, but his election was blocked by Patrick Henry.
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35. James Madison ensured that his writings were delivered to Randolph, Mason, and other prominent Virginia anti-federalists, as those opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were known.
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36. While in New York, James Madison was approached by Alexander Hamilton, who asked him to help write The Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper articles published in New York that explained and defended the proposed Constitution.
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38. James Madison had hoped that a coalition of Southern states and populous Northern states would ensure the approval of a constitution largely similar to the one proposed in the Virginia Plan.
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40. James Madison helped arrange the 1785 Mount Vernon Conference, which helped settle disputes regarding navigation rights on the Potomac River and served as a model for future interstate conferences.
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42. James Madison served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1784 to 1786.
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