46 Facts About James Madison

1. James Madison was honored on a Postage Issue of 1894.

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2. In the 1830s, James Madison served a term as president of the American Colonization Society, which founded the settlement of Liberia for former slaves.

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3. James Madison believed that former slaves were unlikely to successfully integrate into Southern society, and in the late 1780s, he became interested in the idea of African-Americans establishing colonies in Africa.

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4. At the Philadelphia Convention, James Madison favored an immediate end to the importation of slaves, though the final document barred Congress from interfering with the international slave trade until 1808.

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5. Regardless of his own religious beliefs, James Madison believed in religious liberty, and he advocated for Virginia's disestablishment of the Anglican Church throughout the late 1770s and 1780s.

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6. As an adult, James Madison paid little attention to religious matters.

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7. James Madison died at Montpelier on the morning of June 28, 1836.

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8. James Madison was disappointed at the failure of Virginians to resolve the issue more equitably.

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9. James Madison helped Jefferson establish the University of Virginia, though the university was primarily Jefferson's initiative.

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10. In his retirement, James Madison occasionally became involved in public affairs, advising Andrew Jackson and other presidents.

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11. As with both Washington and Jefferson, James Madison left the presidency a poorer man than when elected.

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12. When James Madison left office in 1817 at age 65, he retired to Montpelier, his tobacco plantation in Orange County, Virginia, not far from Jefferson's Monticello.

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13. James Madison believed their adoption of European-style agriculture would help the Creek assimilate the values of British-US civilization.

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14. James Madison had presided over the expiration of the First Bank of the United States's charter in 1811.

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15. At the same time, James Madison embraced some aspects of the Federalist program that he had previously opposed, weakening the ideological divisions between the Federalists and the Democratic-Republicans.

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16. James Madison quickly sent the Treaty of Ghent to the Senate, and the Senate ratified the treaty on February 16, 1815.

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17. James Madison authorized many of these ships to become privateers in the war, and they captured 1,800 British ships.

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18. James Madison had believed the state militias would rally to the flag and invade Canada, but the governors in the Northeast failed to cooperate.

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19. James Madison hoped that the war would end in a couple months after the capture of Canada, but his hopes were quickly dashed.

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20. On June 1, 1812, James Madison asked Congress for a declaration of war.

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21. James Madison accepted Napoleon's proposal in the hope that it would convince the British to revoke the Orders-in-Council, but the British refused to change their policies.

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22. In early 1810, James Madison began asking Congress for more appropriations to increase the Army and Navy in preparation for war with Britain.

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23. James Madison chose not to fight Congress for the nomination but kept Gallatin, a carry over from the Jefferson administration, in the Treasury Department.

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24. James Madison became the target of attacks from Congressman John Randolph, a leader of the tertium quids.

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25. With the wars raging in Europe, James Madison tried to maintain American neutrality, and insisted on the legal rights of the US as a neutral party under international law.

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26. James Madison had begun to act as a steward of his father's properties by 1780.

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27. At age 50, James Madison inherited the large plantation of Montpelier and other possessions, including his father's 108 slaves.

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28. James Madison had no children but adopted Todd's one surviving son, John Payne Todd, after the marriage.

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29. James Madison laid the groundwork for Jefferson's campaign, building alliances in various states in hopes of ensuring Jefferson's election.

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30. James Madison lost much of his influence in the Washington administration, as Washington increasingly turned to Jefferson and Hamilton for advice.

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31. James Madison feared that the states would call for a new constitutional convention if Congress failed to pass a bill of rights.

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32. James Madison helped Washington write his first inaugural address, and prepared the official House response to the address.

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33. At the request of Washington, James Madison sought a seat in the United States Senate, but his election was blocked by Patrick Henry.

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34. James Madison persuaded prominent figures such as Randolph to change their position and support it at the ratifying convention.

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35. James Madison ensured that his writings were delivered to Randolph, Mason, and other prominent Virginia anti-federalists, as those opposed to the ratification of the Constitution were known.

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36. While in New York, James Madison was approached by Alexander Hamilton, who asked him to help write The Federalist Papers, a series of 85 newspaper articles published in New York that explained and defended the proposed Constitution.

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37. James Madison returned to New York, where the Confederation Congress was in session.

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38. James Madison had hoped that a coalition of Southern states and populous Northern states would ensure the approval of a constitution largely similar to the one proposed in the Virginia Plan.

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39. James Madison worked with his fellow members of the Virginia delegation, especially Edmund Randolph and George Mason, to create and present the plan to the convention.

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40. James Madison helped arrange the 1785 Mount Vernon Conference, which helped settle disputes regarding navigation rights on the Potomac River and served as a model for future interstate conferences.

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41. Throughout the 1780s, James Madison advocated for reform of the Articles of Confederation.

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42. James Madison served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1784 to 1786.

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43. James Madison served on the Council of State from 1777 to 1779, when he was elected to the Congress of the Confederation.

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44. At the Virginia constitutional convention, James Madison supported the Virginia Declaration of Rights, though he argued that it should contain stronger protections for freedom of religion.

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45. James Madison learned mathematics, geography, and modern and classical languages—he became especially proficient in Latin.

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46. James Madison succeeded Jefferson with a victory in the 1808 presidential election, and he won re-election in 1812.

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