65 Facts About Jawaharlal Nehru

1. In 1955, Jawaharlal Nehru was awarded Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour.

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2. Jawaharlal Nehru had written 30 letters to his daughter Indira Gandhi, when she was 10 years old and in a boarding school in Mussoorie, teaching about natural history and the story of civilisations.

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3. Jawaharlal Nehru was a prolific writer in English and wrote a number of books, such as The Discovery of India, Glimpses of World History, and his autobiography, Toward Freedom.

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4. Jawaharlal Nehru is praised for creating a system providing universal primary education, reaching children in the farthest corners of rural India.

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5. Jawaharlal Nehru wanted to model India as a secular country; his secularist policies remain a subject of debate.

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6. Jawaharlal Nehru took the personal decision to send an Indian Navy frigate to the sea burial of Edwina Mountbatten in 1960.

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7. Jawaharlal Nehru ordered the raising of an elite Indian-trained "Tibetan Armed Force" composed of Tibetan refugees, which served with distinction in future wars against Pakistan in 1965 and 1971.

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8. Jawaharlal Nehru accepted the arbitration of the UK and World Bank, signing the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960 with Pakistani ruler Ayub Khan to resolve long-standing disputes about sharing the resources of the major rivers of the Punjab region.

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9. Jawaharlal Nehru had a powerful ally in the US president Dwight Eisenhower who, if relatively silent publicly, went to the extent of using America's clout in the International Monetary Fund to make Britain and France back down.

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10. In 1956, Jawaharlal Nehru had criticised the joint invasion of the Suez Canal by the British, French and Israelis.

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11. In 1954, Jawaharlal Nehru signed with China the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, known in India as the Panchsheel, a set of principles to govern relations between the two states.

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12. Jawaharlal Nehru was then at the peak of his popularity in India; the only criticism came from the far-right.

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13. Jawaharlal Nehru was hailed by many for working to defuse global tensions and the threat of nuclear weapons after the Korean War.

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14. Jawaharlal Nehru envisioned the development of nuclear weapons and established the Atomic Energy Commission of India in 1948.

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15. Jawaharlal Nehru pioneered the policy of non-alignment and co-founded the Non-Aligned Movement of nations professing neutrality between the rival blocs of nations led by the US and the USSR.

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16. Jawaharlal Nehru led newly independent India from 1947 to 1964, during its first years of independence from British rule.

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17. Jawaharlal Nehru championed secularism and religious harmony, increasing the representation of minorities in government.

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18. Jawaharlal Nehru outlined a commitment in his five-year plans to guarantee free and compulsory primary education to all of India's children.

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19. Jawaharlal Nehru was a passionate advocate of education for India's children and youth, believing it essential for India's future progress.

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20. Jawaharlal Nehru refused to reorganise states on either religious or ethnic lines.

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21. In December 1953, Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the States Reorganisation Commission to prepare for the creation of states on linguistic lines.

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22. Jawaharlal Nehru declared the new republic to be a "Union of States".

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23. Jawaharlal Nehru believed that the establishment of basic and heavy industry was fundamental to the development and modernisation of the Indian economy.

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24. Jawaharlal Nehru had led the Congress to a major victory in the 1957 elections, but his government was facing rising problems and criticism.

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25. Jawaharlal Nehru emerged from this—his ninth and last detention—only on 15 June 1945.

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26. In October 1940, Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, abandoning their original stand of supporting Britain, decided to launch a limited civil disobedience campaign in which leading advocates of Indian independence were selected to participate one by one.

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27. Jawaharlal Nehru hurried back from a visit to China, announcing that, in a conflict between democracy and Fascism, "our sympathies must inevitably be on the side of democracy.

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28. Jawaharlal Nehru had hoped to elevate Maulana Azad as the pre-eminent leader of Indian Muslims, but in this, he was undermined by Gandhi, who continued to treat Jinnah as the voice of Indian Muslims.

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29. Jawaharlal Nehru declared that the only two parties that mattered in India were the British Raj and Congress.

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30. Jawaharlal Nehru appointed the National Planning Commission in 1938 to help in framing such policies.

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31. Jawaharlal Nehru was given the responsibility of planning the economy of a future India.

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32. Jawaharlal Nehru developed good relations with governments all over the world.

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33. Jawaharlal Nehru was elected in his place and held the presidency for two years.

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34. Jawaharlal Nehru had the support of the left-wing Congressmen Maulana Azad and Subhas Chandra Bose.

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35. Jawaharlal Nehru elaborated the policies of the Congress and a future Indian nation under his leadership in 1929.

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36. Jawaharlal Nehru was arrested on 14 April 1930 while on train from Allahabad for Raipur.

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37. Jawaharlal Nehru assumed the presidency of the Congress party during the Lahore session on 29 December 1929 and introduced a successful resolution calling for complete independence.

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38. Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the leaders who objected to the time given to the British—he pressed Gandhi to demand immediate actions from the British.

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39. In 1928, Gandhi agreed to Jawaharlal Nehru's demands and proposed a resolution that called for the British to grant dominion status to India within two years.

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40. Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the first leaders to demand that the Congress Party should resolve to make a complete and explicit break from all ties with the British Empire.

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41. Jawaharlal Nehru opened up its ranks to membership from across the political spectrum.

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42. Jawaharlal Nehru was one of the first nationalist leaders to realise the sufferings of the people in the states ruled by Indian princes.

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43. Jawaharlal Nehru refused to meet Benito Mussolini, the dictator of Italy when the latter expressed his desire to meet him.

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44. Jawaharlal Nehru worked closely with Subhas Chandra Bose in developing good relations with governments of free countries all over the world.

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45. Jawaharlal Nehru was in Europe in early 1936, visiting his ailing wife, shortly before she died in a sanitarium in Switzerland.

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46. Jawaharlal Nehru represented India and was elected to the Executive Council of the League against Imperialism that was born at this meeting.

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47. Jawaharlal Nehru sought foreign allies for India and forged links with movements for independence and democracy all over the world.

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48. Jawaharlal Nehru joined the movement and rose to become secretary of Besant's Home Rule League.

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49. Jawaharlal Nehru welcomed and encouraged the rapprochement between the two Indian communities.

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50. Jawaharlal Nehru joined both leagues but worked especially for the former.

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51. Jawaharlal Nehru became involved with aggressive nationalists leaders who were demanding Home Rule for Indians.

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52. Jawaharlal Nehru ridiculed the Indian Civil Service for its support of British policies.

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53. Jawaharlal Nehru spoke out against the censorship acts passed by the British government in India.

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54. Jawaharlal Nehru confessed that he viewed the war with mixed feelings.

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55. Jawaharlal Nehru had developed an interest in Indian politics during his time in Britain as a student and a barrister.

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56. Jawaharlal Nehru dressed in cadet uniform at Harrow School in England.

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57. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote: "Decidedly the atmosphere was not intellectually stimulating and a sense of the utter insipidity of life grew upon me.

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58. Jawaharlal Nehru went to Trinity College, Cambridge in October 1907 and graduated with an honours degree in natural science in 1910.

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59. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote: "Visions of similar deeds in India came before, of [my] gallant fight for [Indian] freedom and in my mind India and Italy got strangely mixed together.

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60. Jawaharlal Nehru wrote: "for nearly three years [Brooks] was with me and in many ways he influenced me greatly".

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61. Jawaharlal Nehru was initiated into the Theosophical Society at age thirteen by family friend Annie Besant.

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62. Jawaharlal Nehru described his childhood as a "sheltered and uneventful one".

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63. Jawaharlal Nehru was the eldest of three children, two of whom were girls.

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64. Jawaharlal Nehru was born on 14 November 1889 in Allahabad in British India.

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65. Jawaharlal Nehru became the prominent leader of the left-wing factions of the Indian National Congress during the 1920s, and eventually of the entire Congress, with the tacit approval of his mentor, Gandhi.

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