Early Muslim conquests, referred to as the Arab conquests and the early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
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Muslim conquests brought about the collapse of the Sassanid Empire and a great territorial loss for the Byzantine Empire.
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The reasons for the Muslim conquests success are hard to reconstruct in hindsight, primarily because only fragmentary sources from the period have survived.
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The Muslim conquests fleet was based in Alexandria and used Acre, Tyre and Beirut as its forward bases.
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The Muslim conquests warships had a larger forecastle, which was used to mount a stone-throwing engine.
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In 670, a Muslim conquests fleet seized Rhodes and then laid siege to Constantinople.
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Early Muslim conquests historians viewed them as a reflection of the religious zeal of the conquerors and evidence of divine favor.
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The theory that the Muslim conquests are explainable as an Arab migration triggered by economic pressures enjoyed popularity early in the 20th century, but has largely fallen out of favor among historians, especially those who distinguish the migration from the Muslim conquests that preceded and enabled it.
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The Muslim conquests were followed by a large-scale migration of families and whole tribes from Arabia into the lands of the Middle East.
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However, conversion was associated with economic and political advantages, and Muslim conquests elites were reluctant to see their privileges diluted.
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Arab-Muslim conquests followed a general pattern of nomadic conquests of settled regions, whereby the conquering peoples became the new military elite and reached a compromise with the old elites by allowing them to retain local political, religious, and financial authority.
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