49 Facts About New Deal


New Deal was a series of programs, public work projects, financial reforms, and regulations enacted by President Franklin D Roosevelt in the United States of America between 1933 and 1939.

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The New Deal included new constraints and safeguards on the banking industry and efforts to re-inflate the economy after prices had fallen sharply.

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New Deal programs included both laws passed by Congress as well as presidential executive orders during the first term of the presidency of Franklin D Roosevelt.

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The New Deal produced a political realignment, making the Democratic Party the majority with its base in progressive ideas, the South, big city machines and the newly empowered labor unions, and various ethnic groups.

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The final major items of New Deal legislation were the creation of the United States Housing Authority and the FSA, which both occurred in 1937; and the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, which set maximum hours and minimum wages for most categories of workers.

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Several organizations created by New Deal programs remain active and those operating under the original names include the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, the Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, the Federal Housing Administration, and the Tennessee Valley Authority .

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Phrase "New Deal" was coined by an adviser to Roosevelt, Stuart Chase, who used A New Deal as the title for an article published in the progressive magazine The New Republic a few days before Roosevelt's speech.

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New Deal policies drew from many different ideas proposed earlier in the 20th century.

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The "First New Deal" encompassed the proposals offered by a wide spectrum of groups .

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New Deal explained to the public in simple terms the causes of the banking crisis, what the government would do, and how the population could help.

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New Deal closed all the banks in the country and kept them all closed until new legislation could be passed.

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New Deal signed the bill to legalize the manufacture and sale of alcohol, an interim measure pending the repeal of prohibition, for which a constitutional amendment of repeal was already in process.

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New Deal argued that government economic planning was necessary to remedy this.

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New Deal's did so and participated actively in them every year until she left office.

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The New Deal followed and increased President Hoover's lead-and-seek measures.

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The New Deal sought to stimulate the private home building industry and increase the number of individuals who owned homes.

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The New Deal implemented two new housing agencies: Home Owners' Loan Corporation and the Federal Housing Administration .

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New Deal proposed adding five new justices, but conservative Democrats revolted, led by the Vice President.

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Analysts agree the New Deal produced a new political coalition that sustained the Democratic Party as the majority party in national politics into the 1960s.

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The estimated persistence of this shift suggests that New Deal spending increased long-term Democratic support by 2 to 2.

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New Deal's says they overemphasized individualism and ignored the enormous power that big capital wields, the Constitutional restraints on radicalism and the role of racism, antifeminism and homophobia.

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New Deal'storians generally agree that during Roosevelt's 12 years in office there was a dramatic increase in the power of the federal government as a whole.

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New Deal's enduring appeal on voters fostered its acceptance by moderate and progressive Republicans.

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New Deal sanctioned a major expansion of Social Security by a self-financed program.

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New Deal supported such New Deal programs as the minimum wage and public housing—he greatly expanded federal aid to education and built the Interstate Highway system primarily as defense programs .

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Once an ardent supporter of the New Deal, Reagan turned against it, now viewing government as the problem rather than solution and, as president, moved the nation away from the New Deal model of government activism, shifting greater emphasis to the private sector.

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New Deal'storians debating the New Deal have generally been divided between progressives who support it, conservatives who oppose it, and some New Left historians who complain it was too favorable to capitalism and did too little for minorities.

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The New Deal preserved democracy in the United States in a historic period of uncertainty and crises when in many other countries democracy failed.

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New Deal fought against the veterans' bonus until Congress finally overrode Roosevelt's veto and gave out $2.

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New Deal programs put millions of Americans immediately back to work or at least helped them to survive.

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New Deal policies helped establish a political alliance between blacks and the Democratic Party that survives into the 21st century.

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New Deal was racially segregated as blacks and whites rarely worked alongside each other in New Deal programs.

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New Deal's record came under attack by New Left historians in the 1960s for its pusillanimity in not attacking capitalism more vigorously, nor helping blacks achieve equality.

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At first, the New Deal created programs primarily for men as it was assumed that the husband was the "breadwinner" and if they had jobs the whole family would benefit.

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New Deal expanded the role of the federal government, particularly to help the poor, the unemployed, youth, the elderly and stranded rural communities.

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New Deal tried public works, farm subsidies and other devices to reduce unemployment, but Roosevelt never completely gave up trying to balance the budget.

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One class of New Deal policies was reform: wage and price control, the Blue Eagle, the national industrial recovery movement.

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Ben Bernanke and Martin Parkinson declared in "Unemployment, Inflation, and Wages in the American Depression" that "the New Deal is better characterized as having cleared the way for a natural recovery rather than as being the engine of recovery itself".

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However, before 1992 scholars did not realize that the New Deal provided for a huge aggregate demand stimulus through a de facto easing of monetary policy.

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Followers of the real business-cycle theory believe that the New Deal caused the depression to persist longer than it would otherwise have.

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Paul Krugman stated that the institutions built by the New Deal remain the bedrock of the United States economic stability.

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New Deal'storians argue that direct comparisons between Fascism and New Deal are invalid since there is no distinctive form of fascist economic organization.

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New Deal concluded that "the various populist, nativist, and rightist movements in the United States during the 1920s and 1930s fell distinctly short of fascism".

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New Deal was generally held in very high regard in scholarship and textbooks.

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The New Deal Left believed in participatory democracy and therefore rejected the autocratic machine politics typical of the big city Democratic organizations.

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In 1966, Howard Zinn criticized the New Deal for working actively to actually preserve the worst evils of capitalism.

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For journalists and the novelists who wrote non-fiction, the agencies and programs that the New Deal provided, allowed these writers to describe what they really saw around the country.

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Gertrude Stein and Ernest Hemingway disliked the New Deal and celebrated the autonomy of perfected written work as opposed to the New Deal idea of writing as performative labor.

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New Deal had many programs and new agencies, most of which were universally known by their initials.

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