28 Facts About Permian


Permian is a geologic period and stratigraphic system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period 298.

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The concept of the Permian was introduced in 1841 by geologist Sir Roderick Murchison, who named it after the region of Perm in Russia.

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Permian witnessed the diversification of the two groups of amniotes, the synapsids and the sauropsids.

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The end of the Early Permian saw a major faunal turnover, with most lineages of primitive "pelycosaur" synapsids becoming extinct, being replaced by more advanced therapsids.

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The end of the Capitanian Stage of the Permian was marked by the major Capitanian mass extinction event, associated with the eruption of the Emeishan Traps.

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Term "Permian" was introduced into geology in 1841 by Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, president of the Geological Society of London, after extensive Russian explorations undertaken with Edouard de Verneuil in the vicinity of the Ural Mountains in the years 1840 and 1841.

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The Permian system was controversial for over a century after its original naming, with the United States Geological Survey until 1941 considering the Permian a subsystem of the Carboniferous equivalent to the Mississippian and Pennsylvanian.

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Permian Period is divided into three epochs, from oldest to youngest, the Cisuralian, Guadalupian, and Lopingian.

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Historically, most marine biostratigraphy of the Permian was based on ammonoids; however, ammonoid localities are rare in Permian stratigraphic sections, and species characterise relatively long periods of time.

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All GSSPs for the Permian are based around the first appearance datum of specific species of conodont, an enigmatic group of jawless chordates with hard tooth-like oral elements.

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In North America, the Permian is divided into the Wolfcampian corresponding to the Asselian through lower Kungurian; the Leonardian corresponding to the upper Kungurian; the Guadalupian; and the Ochoan, corresponding to the Lopingian.

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The sea level was stable at several tens of metres above present during the Early Permian, but there was a sharp drop beginning during the Roadian, culminating in the lowest sea level of the entire Palaeozoic at around present sea level during the Wuchiapingian, followed by a slight rise during the Changhsingian.

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The Permian was cool in comparison to most other geologic time periods, with modest Pole to Equator temperature gradients.

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The end of the Permian is marked by the much larger temperature excursion at the Permian-Triassic boundary, corresponding to the eruption of the Siberian Traps, which released more than 5 teratonnes of CO2, more than doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations.

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The extinct order Productida was the predominant group of Permian brachiopods, accounting for up to about half of all Permian brachiopod genera.

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Terrestrial life in the Permian included diverse plants, fungi, arthropods, and various types of tetrapods.

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Permian saw the radiation of many important conifer groups, including the ancestors of many present-day families.

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Towards the end of the Permian, there was a substantial drop in both origination and extinction rates.

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The dominant insects during the Permian Period were early representatives of Paleoptera, Polyneoptera, and Paraneoptera.

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Early Permian records are dominated by equatorial Europe and North America, while those of the Middle and Late Permian are dominated by temperate Karoo Supergroup sediments of South Africa and the Ural region of European Russia.

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Late Permian faunas are dominated by advanced therapsids such as the predatory sabertoothed gorgonopsians and herbivorous beaked dicynodonts, alongside large herbivorous pareiasaur parareptiles.

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The Archosauromorpha, the group of reptiles that would give rise to the pseudosuchians, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs in the following Triassic, first appeared and diversified during the Late Permian, including the first appearance of the Archosauriformes during the latest Permian.

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Diversity of fish during the Permian is relatively low compared to the following Triassic.

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The dominant group of bony fishes during the Permian were the "Paleopterygii" a paraphyletic grouping of Actinopterygii that lie outside of Neopterygii.

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The diversity of coelacanths is relatively low throughout the Permian in comparison to other marine fishes, though there is an increase in diversity during the terminal Permian, corresponding with the highest diversity in their evolutionary history during the Early Triassic.

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Four floristic provinces in the Permian are recognised, the Angaran, Euramerican, Gondwanan, and Cathaysian realms.

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Permian conifers were very similar morphologically to their modern counterparts, and were adapted to stressed dry or seasonally dry climatic conditions.

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Permian ended with the most extensive extinction event recorded in paleontology: the Permian–Triassic extinction event.

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